Cluster-Aware Updating Overview
Updated: October 17, 2013
Applies To: Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012
This topic provides an overview of Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU), a feature for failover clusters that was introduced in Windows Server 2012. CAU automates the software updating process on clustered servers while maintaining availability. This topic describes scenarios and applications for using CAU, and provides links to content that describes how to integrate CAU into other IT automation and management processes.
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CAU is related to but is distinct from the following foundational technologies:
CAU is an automated feature that enables you to update clustered servers with little or no loss of availability during the update process. During an Updating Run, CAU transparently performs the following tasks:
Puts each node of the cluster into node maintenance mode
Moves the clustered roles off the node
Installs the updates and any dependent updates
Performs a restart if necessary
Brings the node out of maintenance mode
Restores the clustered roles on the node
Moves to update the next node
For many clustered roles (formerly called clustered applications and services) in the cluster, the automatic update process triggers a planned failover, and it can cause a transient service interruption for connected clients. However, in the case of continuously available workloads such as Hyper-V with live migration or file server with SMB Transparent Failover, CAU can coordinate cluster updates with no impact to the service availability.
The CAU feature is only compatible with Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012 failover clusters and the clustered roles that are supported on those versions.
CAU reduces service outages in clustered services, reduces the need for manual updating workarounds, and makes the end-to-end cluster updating process more reliable for the administrator. When the CAU feature is used together with continuously available cluster workloads, such as continuously available file servers (file server workload with SMB Transparent Failover) or Hyper-V, the cluster updates can be performed with zero impact to service availability for clients.
CAU facilitates the adoption of consistent IT processes across the enterprise. You can create Updating Run Profiles for different classes of failover clusters and then manage them centrally on a file share to ensure that CAU deployments throughout the IT organization apply updates consistently, even if the clusters are managed by different lines-of-business or administrators.
CAU can schedule Updating Runs on regular daily, weekly, or monthly intervals to help coordinate cluster updates with other IT management processes.
CAU provides an extensible architecture to update the cluster software inventory in a cluster-aware fashion. This can be used by publishers to coordinate the installation of software updates that are not published to Windows Update or Microsoft Update or that are not available from Microsoft, for example, updates for non-Microsoft device drivers.
CAU self-updating mode enables a “cluster in a box” appliance (a set of clustered physical machines running Windows Server 2012, typically packaged in one chassis) to update itself. Typically, such appliances are deployed in branch offices with minimal local IT support to manage the clusters. Self-updating mode offers great value in these deployment scenarios.
Following is a description of important CAU functionality:
A user interface (UI) and a set of Windows PowerShell cmdlets that you can use to preview, apply, monitor, and report on the updates
An end-to-end automation of the cluster-updating operation (an Updating Run), orchestrated by one or more Update Coordinator computers
A default plug-in that integrates with the existing Windows Update Agent (WUA) and Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) infrastructure in Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012 to apply important Microsoft updates
A second plug-in that can be used to apply Microsoft hotfixes, and that can be customized to apply non-Microsoft updates
Updating Run Profiles that you configure with settings for Updating Run options, such as the maximum number of times that the update will be retried per node. Updating Run Profiles enable you to rapidly reuse the same settings across Updating Runs and easily share the update settings with other failover clusters.
An extensible architecture that supports new plug-in development to coordinate other node-updating tools across the cluster, such as custom software installers, BIOS updating tools, and network adapter or host bus adapter (HBA) updating tools.
CAU can coordinate the complete cluster updating operation in two modes:
Self-updating mode For this mode, the CAU clustered role is configured as a workload on the failover cluster that is to be updated, and an associated update schedule is defined. The cluster updates itself at scheduled times by using a default or custom Updating Run profile. During the Updating Run, the CAU Update Coordinator process starts on the node that currently owns the CAU clustered role, and the process sequentially performs updates on each cluster node. To update the current cluster node, the CAU clustered role fails over to another cluster node, and a new Update Coordinator process on that node assumes control of the Updating Run. In self-updating mode, CAU can update the failover cluster by using a fully automated, end-to-end updating process. An administrator can also trigger updates on-demand in this mode, or simply use the remote-updating approach if desired. In self-updating mode, an administrator can get summary information about an Updating Run in progress by connecting to the cluster and running the Get-CauRun Windows PowerShell cmdlet.
Remote-updating mode For this mode, a remote computer that is running Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1 or Windows 8, which is called an Update Coordinator, is configured with the CAU tools. The Update Coordinator is not a member of the cluster that is updated during the Updating Run. From the remote computer, the administrator triggers an on-demand Updating Run by using a default or custom Updating Run profile. Remote-updating mode is useful for monitoring real-time progress during the Updating Run, and for clusters that are running on Server Core installations of Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012.
CAU can be used on all editions of Windows Server 2012 R2 and Windows Server 2012, including Server Core installations. For detailed requirements information, see CAU: Requirements and Best Practices.
To use CAU, you must install the Failover Clustering feature in Windows Server 2012 R2 or Windows Server 2012 and create a failover cluster. The components that support CAU functionality are automatically installed on each cluster node.
To install the Failover Clustering feature, you can use the following tools:
Add Roles and Features Wizard in Server Manager
Add-WindowsFeature Windows PowerShell cmdlet
Deployment Image Servicing and Management (DISM) command-line tool
For more information, see Install or Uninstall Roles, Role Services, or Features.
You must also install the CAU tools, which are included in the Failover Clustering Tools (which are also part of the Remote Server Administration Tools, or RSAT). The CAU tools consist of the CAU UI and the CAU Windows PowerShell cmdlets. You must install the Failover Clustering Tools as follows to support the different CAU updating modes:
To use CAU in self-updating mode, the Failover Clustering Tools must be installed on each cluster node. (This is the default installation.)
To enable remote-updating mode, you must install the Failover Clustering Tools from the RSAT on a local or a remote computer that is running Windows Server 2012 R2, Windows Server 2012, Windows 8.1 or Windows 8 and that has network connectivity to the failover cluster.
- You must use the Failover Clustering Tools from the Windows Server 2012 R2 RSAT to remotely manage updates for a Windows Server 2012 R2 failover cluster. You can also use the Windows Server 2012 R2 RSAT to remotely manage updates on a Windows Server 2012 failover cluster.
- To use CAU only in remote-updating mode, installation of the Failover Clustering Tools on the cluster nodes is not required. However, certain CAU features will not be available. For more information, see Requirements and Best Practices for Cluster-Aware Updating.
- Unless you are using CAU only in self-updating mode, the computer on which the CAU tools are installed and that coordinates the updates cannot be a member of the failover cluster.
For more information about installing the Failover Clustering feature, see Installing the Failover Clustering Feature and Tools.
For more information about deploying RSAT, see Deploy Remote Server Administration Tools.
To enable self-updating mode, the CAU clustered role must also be added to the failover cluster. To do this by using the CAU UI, under Cluster Actions, use the Configure Self-Updating Options action. Alternatively, run the Add-CauClusterRoleWindows PowerShell cmdlet.
To uninstall CAU, uninstall the Failover Clustering feature or Failover Clustering Tools by using Server Manager, Windows PowerShell cmdlets, or the DISM command-line tools.
To ensure that CAU can update the cluster nodes successfully, and for additional guidance for configuring your failover cluster environment to use CAU, you can run the CAU Best Practices Analyzer model.
For detailed requirements and best practices for using CAU, and information about running the CAU Best Practices Analyzer model, see CAU: Requirements and Best Practices.
You can start the CAU UI from the following locations:
ClusterUpdateUI.exe located in the %systemroot%\system32 folder
Failover Cluster Manager
Start Server Manager.
Do one of the following:
On the Tools menu, click Cluster-Aware Updating.
If one or more cluster nodes, or the cluster, is added to Server Manager, on the All Servers page, right-click the name of a node (or the name of the cluster), and then click Update Cluster.
For more information about managing servers by using Server Manager, see Manage Multiple, Remote Servers with Server Manager.
The following table provides links to additional information about using CAU that is available on the web.
|Product evaluation||CAU: Frequently Asked Questions|
|Planning||CAU: Requirements and Best Practices|
|Deployment||CAU: Requirements and Best Practices|
|Operations||CAU: Advanced Options and Updating Run Profiles | CAU: How Plug-ins Work|
|Troubleshooting||Troubleshoot Cluster-Aware Updating (CAU) in Windows Server 2012 Failover Clusters|
|Tools and settings||Windows PowerShell® Cmdlets for Cluster-Aware Updating | Cluster-Aware Updating Plug-in Reference|
|Community resources||Storage Team at Microsoft: File Cabinet Blog|
|Related technologies||Failover Clustering | File and Storage Services | Hyper-V overview | Scale-Out File Server for Application Data | Windows Server Update Services | System Center Configuration Manager | System Center Virtual Machine Manager|