SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure
Topic Status: Some information in this topic is preview and subject to change in future releases. Preview information describes new features or changes to existing features in Microsoft SQL Server 2016 Community Technology Preview 2 (CTP2).
SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure enables native support for SQL Server database files stored as Windows Azure Blobs. It allows you to create a database in SQL Server running in on-premises or in a virtual machine in Windows Azure with a dedicated storage location for your data in Windows Azure Blob Storage. This enhancement especially simplifies to move databases between machines by using detach and attach operations. In addition, it provides an alternative storage location for your database backup files by allowing you to restore from or to Windows Azure Storage. Therefore, it enables several hybrid solutions by providing several benefits for data virtualization, data movement, security and availability, and any easy low costs and maintenance for high-availability and elastic scaling.
This topic introduces concepts and considerations that are central to storing SQL Server data files in Windows Azure Storage Service.
For a practical hands-on experience on how to use this new feature, see Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
The following diagram demonstrates that this enhancement enables you to store SQL Server database files as Windows Azure blobs in Windows Azure Storage regardless of where your server resides.
Easy and fast migration benefits: This feature simplifies the migration process by moving one database at a time between machines in on-premises as well as between on-premises and cloud environments without any application changes. Therefore, it supports an incremental migration while maintaining your existing on-premises infrastructure in place. In addition, having access to a centralized data storage simplifies the application logic when an application needs to run in multiple locations in an on-premises environment. In some cases, you may need to rapidly setup computer centers in geographically dispersed locations, which gather data from many different sources. By using this new enhancement, instead of moving data from one location to another, you can store many databases as Windows Azure blobs, and then run Transact-SQL scripts to create databases on the local machines or virtual machines.
Cost and limitless storage benefits: This feature enables you to have limitless off-site storage in Windows Azure while leveraging on-premises compute resources. When you use Windows Azure as a storage location, you can easily focus on the application logic without the overhead of hardware management. If you lose a computation node on-premises, you can set up a new one without any data movement.
High availability and disaster recovery benefits: Using SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature might simplify the high availability and disaster recovery solutions. For example, if a virtual machine in Windows Azure or an instance of SQL Server crashes, you can re-create your databases in a new machine by just re-establishing links to Windows Azure Blobs.
Security benefits: This new enhancement allows you to separate a compute instance from a storage instance. You can have a fully encrypted database with decryption only occurring on compute instance but not in a storage instance. In other words, using this new enhancement, you can encrypt all data in public cloud using Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) certificates, which are physically separated from the data. The TDE keys can be stored in the master database, which is stored locally in your physically secure on-premises machine and backed up locally. You can use these local keys to encrypt the data, which resides in Windows Azure Storage. If your cloud storage account credentials are stolen, your data still stays secure as the TDE certificates always reside in on-premises.
Windows Azure Storage Concepts
When using SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature, you need to create a storage account and a container in Windows Azure. Then, you need to create a SQL Server credential, which includes information on the policy of the container as well as a shared access signature that is necessary to access the container.
In Windows Azure, a storage account represents the highest level of the namespace for accessing Blobs. A storage account can contain an unlimited number of containers, as long as their total size is under 500 TB. For the latest information on storage limits, see Azure Subscription and Service Limits, Quotas, and Constraints. A container provides a grouping of a set of Blobs. All Blobs must be in a container. An account can contain an unlimited number of containers. Similarly, a container can store an unlimited number of Blobs as well. There are two types of blobs that can be stored in Windows Azure Storage: block and page blobs. This new feature uses Page blobs, which can be up to 1TB in size, and are more efficient when ranges of bytes in a file are modified frequently. You can access Blobs using the following URL format: http://storageaccount.blob.core.windows.net/<container>/<blob>.
Windows Azure Billing Considerations
Estimating the cost of using Windows Azure Services is an important matter in the decision making and planning process. When storing SQL Server data files in Windows Azure Storage, you need to pay costs associated with storage and transactions. In addition, the implementation of SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage feature requires a renewal of Blob lease every 45 to 60 seconds implicitly. This also results in transaction costs per database file, such as .mdf or .ldf. Based on our estimations, the cost of renewing leases for two database files (.mdf and .ldf) would be about 2 cents per month according to the current pricing model. We recommend that you use the information on the Azure Pricing page to help estimate the monthly costs associated with the use of Windows Azure Storage and Windows Azure Virtual Machines.
SQL Server Concepts
When using this new enhancement, you are required to do the followings:
You must create a policy on a container and also generate a shared access signature (SAS) key.
For each container used by a data or a log file, you must create a SQL Server Credential whose name matches the container path.
You must store the information regarding Windows Azure Storage container, its associated policy name, and SAS key in the SQL Server credential store.
The following example assumes that a Windows Azure Storage container has been created, and a policy has been created with read, write, list, rights. Creating a policy on a container generates a SAS key which is safe to keep unencrypted in memory and needed by SQL Server to access the blob files in the container. In the following code snippet, replace 'your SAS key' with an entry similar to the following: 'sr=c&si=<MYPOLICYNAME>&sig=<THESHAREDACCESSSIGNATURE>'. For more information, see Manage Access to Azure Storage Resources
-- Create a credential CREATE CREDENTIAL [https://testdb.blob.core.windows.net/data] WITH IDENTITY='SHARED ACCESS SIGNATURE', SECRET = 'your SAS key' -- Create database with data and log files in Windows Azure container. CREATE DATABASE testdb ON ( NAME = testdb_dat, FILENAME = 'https://testdb.blob.core.windows.net/data/TestData.mdf' ) LOG ON ( NAME = testdb_log, FILENAME = 'https://testdb.blob.core.windows.net/data/TestLog.ldf')
Important note: If there are any active references to data files in a container, attempts to delete the corresponding SQL Server credential fails.
The following are security considerations and requirements when storing SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage.
When creating a container for the Windows Azure Blob storage service, we recommend that you set the access to private. When you set the access to private, container and blob data can be read by the Windows Azure account owner only.
When storing SQL Server database files in Windows Azure Storage, you need to use a shared access signature, a URI that grants restricted access rights to containers, blobs, queues, and tables. By using a shared access signature, you can enable SQL Server to access resources in your storage account without sharing your Windows Azure storage account key.
In addition, we recommend that you continue implementing the traditional on-premises security practices for your databases.
The followings are installation prerequisites when storing SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azuree.
SQL Server on-premises: SQL Server 2014 version includes this feature. To learn how to download SQL Server 2014, see SQL Server 2014 .
SQL Server running in a Windows Azure virtual machine: If you are installing SQL Server on a Windows Azure Virtual Machine, install SQL Server 2014, or update your existing instance. Similarly, you can also create a new virtual machine in Windows Azure using SQL Server 2014 platform image. To learn how to download SQL Server 2014, see SQL Server 2014 .
In the current release of this feature, storing FileStream data in Windows Azure Storage is not supported. You can store Filestream data in a Windows Azure Storage integrated local database but you cannot move Filestream data between machines using Windows Azure Storage. For FileStream data, we recommend that you continue using the traditional techniques to move the files (.mdf, .ldf) associated with Filestream between different machines.
Currently, this new enhancement does not support more than one SQL Server instance accessing the same database files in Windows Azure Storage at the same time. If ServerA is online with an active database file and if ServerB is accidently started, and it also has a database which points to the same data file, the second server will fail to start the database with an error code 5120 Unable to open the physical file "%.*ls". Operating system error %d: "%ls".
Only .mdf, .ldf, and .ndf files can be stored in Windows Azure Storage by using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature.
When using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature, geo-replication for your storage account is not supported. If a storage account is geo-replicated and a geo-failover happened, database corruption could occur.
Each Blob can be up to maximum 1 TB in size. This creates an upper limit on individual database data and log files that can be stored in Windows Azure Storage.
It is not possible to store In-Memory OLTP data in Windows Azure Blob using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage feature. This is because In-Memory OLTP has a dependency on FileStream and, in the current release of this feature, storing FileStream data in Windows Azure Storage is not supported.
When using SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature, SQL Server performs all URL or file path comparisons using the Collation set in the master database.
AlwaysOn Availability Groups are supported as long as you do not add new database files to the primary database. If a database operation requires a new file to be created in the primary database, first disable AlwaysOn Availability Groups in the secondary node. Then, perform the database operation on the primary database and backup the database in the primary node. Next, restore the database to the secondary node, and enable AlwaysOn Availability Groups in the secondary node. Note that AlwaysOn Failover Cluster Instances is not supported when using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature.
During normal operation, SQL Server uses temporary leases to reserve Blobs for storage with a renewal of each Blob lease every 45 to 60 seconds. If a server crashes and another instance of SQL Server configured to use the same blobs is started, the new instance will wait up to 60 seconds for the existing lease on the Blob to expire. If you want to attach the database to another instance and you cannot wait for the lease to expire within 60 seconds, you can explicitly break the lease on the Blob to avoid any failures in attach operations.
This section describes which tools and programming reference libraries can be used when storing SQL Server data files in Windows Azure Storage.
In SQL Server 2014, you can use PowerShell cmdlets to store SQL Server data files in Windows Azure Blob Storage service by referencing a Blob Storage URL path instead of a file path. You can access Blobs using the following URL format: http://storageaccount.blob.core.windows.net/<container>/<blob> .
SQL Server Object and performance counters support
Starting with SQL Server 2014, a new SQL Server object has been added to be used with SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage feature. The new SQL Server object is called as SQL Server, HTTP_STORAGE_OBJECT and it can be used by System Monitor to monitor activity when running SQL Server with Windows Azure Storage.
SQL Server Management Studio support
SQL Server Management Studio allows you to use this feature via several dialog windows. For example, you can type the URL path of the storage container, such as https://teststorageaccnt.blob.core.windows.net/testcontainer/ as a Path in several dialog windows, such as New Database, Attach Database, and Restore Database. For more information, see Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
SQL Server Management Objects support
When using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure feature, all SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) are supported. If an SMO object requires a file path, use the BLOB URL format instead of a local file path, such as https://teststorageaccnt.blob.core.windows.net/testcontainer/. For more information about SQL Server Management Objects (SMO), see SQL Server Management Objects (SMO) Programming Guide in SQL Server Books Online.
This new feature has introduced the following change in the Transact-SQL surface area:
A new int column, credential_id, in the sys.master_files system view. The credential_id column is used to enable Azure Storage enabled data files to be cross-referenced back to sys.credentials for the credentials created for them. You can use it for troubleshooting, such as a credential cannot be deleted when there is a database file which uses it.
To avoid errors due to unsupported features or limitations, first review Limitations.
The list of errors that you might get when using the SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage feature are as follows.
Cannot drop the credential '%.*ls' because it is used by an active database file.
Resolution: You may see this error when you try to drop a credential that is still being used by an active database file in Windows Azure Storage. To drop the credential, first you must delete the associated blob that has this database file. To delete a blob that has an active lease, you must first break the lease.
Shared Access Signature has not been created on the container correctly.
Resolution: Make sure that you have created a Shared Access Signature on the container correctly. Review the instructions given in Lesson 2 in Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
SQL Server credential has not been not created correctly.
Resolution: Make sure that you have used 'Shared Access Signature' for the Identity field and created a secret correctly. Review the instructions given in Lesson 3 in Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
Lease blob errors:
Error when trying to start SQL Server after another instance using the same blob files has crashed. Resolution: During normal operation, SQL Server uses temporary leases to reserve Blobs for storage with a renewal of each Blob lease every 45 to 60 seconds. If a server crashes and another instance of SQL Server configured to use the same blobs is started, the new instance will wait up to 60 seconds for the existing lease on the Blob to expire. If you want to attach the database to another instance and you cannot wait for the lease to expire within 60 seconds, you can explicitly break the lease on the Blob to avoid any failures in attach operations.
Errors when creating a database
Resolution: Review the instructions given in Lesson 4 in Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
Errors when running the Alter statement
Resolution: Make sure to execute the Alter Database statement when the database is online. When copying the data files to Windows Azure Storage, always create a page blob not a block blob. Otherwise, ALTER Database will fail. Review the instructions given in Lesson 7 in Tutorial: SQL Server Data Files in Windows Azure Storage service.
Error code 5120 Unable to open the physical file "%.*ls". Operating system error %d: "%ls"
Resolution: Currently, this new enhancement does not support more than one SQL Server instance accessing the same database files in Windows Azure Storage at the same time. If ServerA is online with an active database file and if ServerB is accidently started, and it also has a database which points to the same data file, the second server will fail to start the database with an error code 5120 Unable to open the physical file "%.*ls". Operating system error %d: "%ls".
To resolve this issue, first determine if you need ServerA to access the database file in Windows Azure Storage or not. If not, simply remove any connection between ServerA and the database files in Windows Azure Storage. To do this, follow these steps:
Set the file path of Server A to a local folder by using the ALTER Database statement.
Set the database offline in Server A.
Then, copy database files from Windows Azure Storage to the local folder in Server A. This ensures that ServerA still has a copy of the database locally.
Set the database online.