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Database-Level Roles

 

Updated: May 10, 2016

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

To easily manage the permissions in your databases, SQL Server provides several roles which are security principals that group other principals. They are like groups in the Microsoft Windows operating system. Database-level roles are database-wide in their permissions scope.

There are two types of database-level roles in SQL Server: fixed database roles that are predefined in the database and flexible database roles that you can create.

Fixed database roles are defined at the database level and exist in each database. Members of the db_owner database role can manage fixed database role membership. There are also some special-purpose fixed database roles in the msdb database.

You can add any database account and other SQL Server roles into database-level roles. Each member of a fixed database role can add other logins to that same role.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


Do not add flexible database roles as members of fixed roles. This could enable unintended privilege escalation.

The following table shows the fixed database-level roles and their capabilities. These roles exist in all databases.

Database-level role nameDescription
db_ownerMembers of the db_owner fixed database role can perform all configuration and maintenance activities on the database, and can also drop the database.
db_securityadminMembers of the db_securityadmin fixed database role can modify role membership and manage permissions. Adding principals to this role could enable unintended privilege escalation.
db_accessadminMembers of the db_accessadmin fixed database role can add or remove access to the database for Windows logins, Windows groups, and SQL Server logins.
db_backupoperatorMembers of the db_backupoperator fixed database role can back up the database.
db_ddladminMembers of the db_ddladmin fixed database role can run any Data Definition Language (DDL) command in a database.
db_datawriterMembers of the db_datawriter fixed database role can add, delete, or change data in all user tables.
db_datareaderMembers of the db_datareader fixed database role can read all data from all user tables.
db_denydatawriterMembers of the db_denydatawriter fixed database role cannot add, modify, or delete any data in the user tables within a database.
db_denydatareaderMembers of the db_denydatareader fixed database role cannot read any data in the user tables within a database.

The msdb database contains the special-purpose roles that are shown in the following table.

msdb role nameDescription
db_ssisadmin

 db_ssisoperator

 db_ssisltduser
Members of these database roles can administer and use SSIS. Instances of SQL Server that are upgraded from an earlier version might contain an older version of the role that was named using Data Transformation Services (DTS) instead of SSIS. For more information, see Integration Services Roles (SSIS Service).
dc_admin

 dc_operator

 dc_proxy
Members of these database roles can administer and use the data collector. For more information, see Data Collection.
PolicyAdministratorRoleMembers of the db_ PolicyAdministratorRole database role can perform all configuration and maintenance activities on Policy-Based Management policies and conditions. For more information, see Administer Servers by Using Policy-Based Management.
ServerGroupAdministratorRole

 ServerGroupReaderRole
Members of these database roles can administer and use registered server groups.
dbm_monitorCreated in the msdb database when the first database is registered in Database Mirroring Monitor. The dbm_monitor role has no members until a system administrator assigns users to the role.
System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


Members of the db_ssisadmin role and the dc_admin role may be able to elevate their privileges to sysadmin. This elevation of privilege can occur because these roles can modify Integration Services packages and Integration Services packages can be executed by SQL Server using the sysadmin security context of SQL Server Agent. To guard against this elevation of privilege when running maintenance plans, data collection sets, and other Integration Services packages, configure SQL Server Agent jobs that run packages to use a proxy account with limited privileges or only add sysadmin members to the db_ssisadmin and dc_admin roles.

The following table explains the commands, views and functions for working with database-level roles.

FeatureTypeDescription
sp_helpdbfixedrole (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns a list of the fixed database roles.
sp_dbfixedrolepermission (Transact-SQL)MetadataDisplays the permissions of a fixed database role.
sp_helprole (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns information about the roles in the current database.
sp_helprolemember (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns information about the members of a role in the current database.
sys.database_role_members (Transact-SQL)MetadataReturns one row for each member of each database role.
IS_MEMBER (Transact-SQL)MetadataIndicates whether the current user is a member of the specified Microsoft Windows group or Microsoft SQL Server database role.
CREATE ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandCreates a new database role in the current database.
ALTER ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandChanges the name of a database role.
DROP ROLE (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a role from the database.
sp_addrole (Transact-SQL)CommandCreates a new database role in the current database.
sp_droprole (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a database role from the current database.
sp_addrolemember (Transact-SQL)CommandAdds a database user, database role, Windows login, or Windows group to a database role in the current database.
sp_droprolemember (Transact-SQL)CommandRemoves a security account from a SQL Server role in the current database.

Every database user belongs to the public database role. When a user has not been granted or denied specific permissions on a securable object, the user inherits the permissions granted to public on that object.

Security Catalog Views (Transact-SQL)

Security Stored Procedures (Transact-SQL)

Security Functions (Transact-SQL)

Securing SQL Server

sp_helprotect (Transact-SQL)

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