Spatial Data (SQL Server)
Spatial data represents information about the physical location and shape of geometric objects. These objects can be point locations or more complex objects such as countries, roads, or lakes.
SQL Server supports two spatial data types: the geometry data type and the geography data type.
The geometry type represents data in a Euclidean (flat) coordinate system.
The geography type represents data in a round-earth coordinate system.
Both data types are implemented as .NET common language runtime (CLR) data types in SQL Server.
For a detailed description and examples of the new spatial features in this release, download the white paper, New Spatial Features in SQL Server 2012.