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Terminology Guide: The Novell to Microsoft Dictionary

Archived content. No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

Archived content - No warranty is made as to technical accuracy. Content may contain URLs that were valid when originally published, but now link to sites or pages that no longer exist.

About this guide

This document was prepared by Valinor Inc. Valinor Inc. is a national, full service, privately owned system integrator. Using Microsoft BackOffice™ and Microsoft® Office, Valinor is structured to integrate, develop, train, and transfer knowledge across a broad spectrum of technologies and products. in both mixed vendor and Microsoft only environments. Valinor offers a high density of industry technical certifications and has offices and training facilities in Clifton, NJ; New York, NY; Manchester, NH (Corporate Headquarters); Atlanta, GA; Bellevue, WA; and Waltham, MA and people in Raleigh, N.C. For more information call (603) 668-1776 Or access our web site at http://www.valinor.com.

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to correlate familiar terms and acronyms from the Novell world to equivalent products, features, technologies, or services from Microsoft. This document is designed for Certified NetWare Engineers (CNEs) and other Novell®-literate managers. Terms included are both client-level and server products, tools, applications and concepts.

The Terminology Map is tabular in style and arranged alphabetically based on the Novell term. There are five columns:

  1. the Novell term

  2. a very brief description

  3. the comparable Microsoft term (if there is an reasonable match)

  4. a brief description

  5. how they differ

Also included in the list are Microsoft terms for which there are no Novell matches. The technology will be focused around NetWare® and the Microsoft® Windows NT™ operating system, but not exclusively. LAN Manager for OS/2® will be referenced only where appropriate.

Document Conventions

Acronyms are spelled out the first time they appear (except for extremely common ones, such as "DOS"). All key words and acronyms that are defined or used elsewhere in the table will be in boldface. Commands are in Arial 9 point font and look like this: Attach.

Novell Term

Description

Microsoft Term

Description

Differences

AppWare (not yet shipping as of 7/11/94)

Client-side application development tool consisting of two major components: AppWare Foundation and AppWare Bus. The AppWare Foundation is a set of libraries that make it easier to create portable applications by providing developers with a single, unified API. The resulting code can then be compiled for the specific operating system/GUI required. The AppWare Bus provides large-grained, interchangeable software modules that corporate and vertical developers can use and reuse to quickly construct new network applications, without having to write new code.

No direct equivalent for AppWare Foundation.
Both Visual C++™ and Visual Basic® have some similarity to AppWare Bus

Visual Basic and Visual C++ are high-level, object-orientated programming languages that provide developers with a wide assortment of prewritten modifiable software modules that can be quickly connected to allow developers to rapidly develop graphical applications for both DOS and the Windows™ family.

Client software created with AppWare can only communicate with servers running NetWare NLMs, while Visual Basic and Visual C++ can communicate with server-based applications via network APIs, including Windows Sockets, IPX Sockets, NetBIOS, Named Pipes, and RPCs.
Visual C++ and Visual Basic do not provide application portability; they are designed strictly for the MS Windows environment and can fully exploit the power of the Windows APIs.

Attach

Command which establishes a connection to a server other than the one currently logged in to. User may log in to server with same or different user id.

No direct match.

N/A

It is not necessary to explicitly attach to a specific server prior to establishing a session with a Microsoft network server. Loading the MS network client does not automatically attach to a server as does loading the NetWare shell NETX.

Bindery

A NetWare 2.x and 3.x database residing on each server that keeps records of users, groups, workgroups, printers, services, and other user-definable objects (via an exposed API).

Security Accounts Manager (SAM)

Resides on Windows NT and Windows NT ADVANCED SERVER systems and contains the database of all users and groups.

SAMs are replicated to all servers participating in a domain. The SAM is only one component of the Windows NT security model. Two other major components, the Local Security Authority (LSA) and the Security Reference Monitor (SRM), use the SAM to provide logon and object security.

Brainshare

Annual technical conference sponsored by Novell.

TechEd

Annual technical conference sponsored by
Microsoft.

 

C2 Security

Novell NetWare 4.01 was designed to this US Dept. Of Defense security specification, where versions 2.X to 3.X were not.

C2 Security

Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server where designed to meet these security requirements

Close match.

Capture

Redirects workstation print output to a network print queue or file

Net use lpt N:

User command to redirect print output from local printer port to a network print queue.

CAPTURE allows setting of numerous parameters.

Certified NetWare Engineer (CNE)

An individual who has demonstrated competency to install and support Novell products by passing a series of standard tests.

Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer

An individual who has demonstrated competency to install and support
Microsoft systems and workgroup products by passing a series of standard tests.

Microsoft also has the category Certified Product Specialist which is focused on supporting applications (including MS® Mail).

Certified NetWare Instructor (CNI)

A trainer authorized by Novell to deliver courses via an authorized training center. Intensive training & testing as well as periodic update training are required to achieve and maintain this status.

Microsoft Certified Trainer

A trainer authorized by Microsoft to deliver courses via an Authorized Technical Education Center. Intensive training & testing as well as periodic update training are required to achieve and maintain this status.

 

Directory Services, NetWare (NDS)

Distributed, replicated NetWare 4.x database with names and access information for almost every object on the network.

Enterprise-wide Domains

Windows NT Authentication system that provides single-logon to entire enterprise.
Users are able to browse for resources distributed throughout the network.

NDS uses a hierarchical model.
Domains can be setup in hierarchical, peer, or mixed configurations.

Endcap

Returns print output to local port (stops redirection)

Net use lpt N: /d

Return print output to local port.

None.

Enterprise Certified NetWare Engineer (ECNE)

A CNE who has additional experience, course work and testing in a broader range of NetWare products focusing on enterprise-wide connectivity.

No directly comparable Microsoft certification category.

N/A

There are course offerings and tests in Microsoft enterprise technologies but there is not currently an classification for having taken and passed them.

Fake Root

A server's directory, not necessarily its root, which appears to a workstation user as the root of a local drive. Often used in conjunction with Search Drives.

Redirected drive or a
Network Use.

A server directory which appears to the a workstation user as the root of a drive. Can be added to the PATH environment variable

All local drives redirected to MS servers appear as fake roots.

Global Message Handling Service (MHS)

Messaging architecture consisting of server software, gateway software, & the Standard Messaging Format (SMF) API. Many ISVs have written E-mail, scheduling and workflow applications that utilize MHS for message handling.

Microsoft Enterprise Messaging

Currently a set of user mail programs, gateways, and published API's which can all access the standard MS Mail Server database structure.
Products are evolving to a client-server architecture.

Microsoft's focus is currently on the client software and gateways. ISV's are being encouraged to write mail server applications. Integration of mail with Windows applications is very strong.
Novell's focus is on the server software and gateways. Most sites use 3rd party client mail software.

Hot Fix

When the Read-after-Write function identifies defective areas of server's disk, the system lists them in a table so as not to be used in the future. Data is then written to location known as Hot Fix Redirection Area.

Sparing bad disk sectors

When a disk is formatted bad sectors are spared from service.
If a sector subsequently fails & Windows NT fault tolerance services are configured, the bad sector will be spared at either the device or file system level.. If sparing occurs at the device level, a good copy of data will be written to a different location on the disk which experienced the failure.

Both provide similar results

Independent Manufacturer Support Program

NetWare program that allows hardware vendors to test NetWare products on their various hardware configurations for compatibility. Any hardware configuration that successfully meets the test criteria is listed in Novell's technical bulletins and compatibility database.

Hardware Compatibility List

In cooperation with their IHVs, Microsoft makes a major effort to test new networking products on various hardware platforms. Hardware vendors must test each product vigorously and must be approved before they appear on the compatibility list.

Close match.

Internal Routing

An NLM which provides routing capability on a NetWare 3.1x or greater file server. NetWare internal routers can route IPX, IP, and AppleTalk®. Includes Routing Information Protocol (RIP) for both IPX and IP.

TCP/IP routing

Basic IP routing using static routes. RIP is not supported.

3rd Parties have announced plans to develop router software to run on the Windows NT operating system.

IP 1.1, NetWare

Product family enabling NetWare servers and clients to communicate over a TCP/IP stack instead of IPX.

TCP/IP for DOS, Windows, & Windows NT.

IP protocol suite delivered with all MS Networking products. Enables servers and clients to communicate over an IP Stack.

NetWare IP is a recent addition to Novell and is provided as an add-on purchase. Microsoft includes TCP/IP with its network operating systems.

IP Tunneling

Encapsulation of IPX/SPX packets within UDP/IP for transport across existing IP network enabling connection with remote NetWare Servers.

N/A (Windows NT and Lan Manager support TCP/IP natively)

 

Windows NT does not provide encapsulation of traffic within IP packets.
See NetWare IP.

IPX
Internetwork Packet Exchange

Network layer protocol providing transportation of data between computers on a Novell network. IPX is a very fast and small connectionless datagram protocol. Often run in conjunction with SPX.

NWLink

Microsoft's NDIS-compliant version of IPX/SPX supplied by
Microsoft, included with Windows NT & Windows NT Advanced Server

Interoperable

LAN WorkPlace

A software product family for MS-DOS®, Windows, OS/2, and Macintosh® clients enabling participation in a TCP/IP environment. Included are various levels of terminal emulation and file transfer capabilities depending on client version.

Microsoft TCP/IP

A software product family for MS-DOS, Windows, OS/2 and Windows NT-based clients and servers enabling participation in a TCP/IP environment. Terminal emulation and file transfer included with Windows NT, and are available separately for the others.

Differences are primarily in product bundling and pricing. Microsoft TCP/IP protocols are included with the entire family of Windows operating systems.

Lastdrive

Drive letters above this CONFIG.SYS parameter are used for network connections. The drive letter immediately following is automatically mapped to the login directory of a server to provide access to the user login program.

Lastdrive

Indicates highest drive letter which can be re-directed to a network share.

NetWare network drives are typically mapped after LASTDRIVE while
Microsoft network drives must be connected to letters preceding LASTDRIVE. NetWare can map drive letters preceding LASTDRIVE to network directories.

Managers & Operators

Users with additional rights so as to be able to assist with the operation and maintenance of various network systems such as printers or user accounts.
Categories are:
Workgroup Manager
User Account Manager
Print Server Operator
Print Queue Operator
File Server Console Operator

Operator Groups

Users who are members of special groups which enable them to assist with the operation and maintenance of various network systems such as printers or user accounts.
Groups are:
Account Operators
Backup Operators
Print Operators
Server Operators

Similar functionality.

Map

Command used to connect to a directory on a server.

Net use

Command used to connect to a shared directory on a server. See Share name below.

The NET command has numerous options in addition to the USE switch. The NET USE command is equivalent to MAP ROOT.
MAP provides an option, SEARCH, which has the effect of adding the mapped drive to the path.

MHS Remote

NetWare Remote MHS provides a remote messaging architecture fully compatible with network MHS. Functions via asynchronous modems and network cards.

Microsoft Mail Remote

Microsoft Remote Mail provides DOS and Windows users with email and mail-enabled functions through asynchronous modems. All MAPI functions are available to Mail Remote users.

Microsoft does not currently support the Schedule+ API (SAPI) over remote Mail connections.

MHS: Gateways: SNADS, SMTP, X.400

SNADS, SMTP, and X.400 NLM-based gateways for the Global MHS messaging system. Each product allows for messages to be sent to systems of their respective formats.

MS Mail Gateway(s) to X.400, SNADS, SMTP

Additional add-ons to
Microsoft mail which allows MS Mail clients to communicate with
different common mail formats

Close match.

MONITOR

NetWare console monitor utility. Tracks and displays numerous server performance statistics and configuration parameters in text form.

Performance Monitor

Windows NT utility program that tracks and displays numerous performance statistics in both graphical and textual form.

MONITOR gives protocol statistics, memory allocation, up-time statistics, and more.
Performance Monitor supports alarms, multiple parametrs, and even multiple servers simultaneously.

NetBIOS (for NetWare)

Network interface layer required by some client programs written to the IBM NetBIOS interface specification. This layer runs "on top" of IPX/SPX and is not required for file and print services.

NetBEUI (NetBIOS Extended User Interface) & NBT (NetBIOS over TCP/IP)

NetBIOS interface either built into the protocol stack as is the case w/NetBEUI or as an add on software module, NBT.

NetBIOS is currently an integral piece of the
Microsoft Network Architecture. File & Print Services rely on NetBIOS support. NetBIOS support is built right in to the NetBEUI protocol.
In NetWare NetBIOS is only used for supporting 3rd party applications which require it.

NetWare 2.x, 3.12, 4.01, & 4.01 for OS/2

Novell's family of network operating systems (NOSs). These products allow users to share files and printing resources. Most of Novell add-on products are built to enhance the basic file and print services that NetWare NOS products provide.

Microsoft Windows™ for Workgroups 3.11, Microsoft Lan Manager 2.2B, Microsoft Windows NT Workstation, and
Microsoft Windows NT Server.

Microsoft's family of network operating systems. These products allow users to share files and printing resources. All of the
Microsoft Network Operating Systems are designed with compatibility from previous operating system versions.

With the exception of Lan Manager, Microsoft's NOSs are both operating systems and network operating systems. Each also can also provide peer services. All client and server applications run in "user space" and can communicate via network interprocess communication (IPC) protocols. NetWare 3.x and above support server-based programs called "NLMs" that run in "kernel space", which imposes some additional problems and constraints in exchange for high performance.

NetWare Admin

Formerly "Supervisor", Admin is the user account with complete access to all file and printer devices. Also the Admin account is used to administer the a NetWare network including define users, security, logon scripts and access control.

Administrator

Administrator is the Windows NT user account (Admin in Lan Manager) with complete access to all file and printer devices. The Administrator account is also used to administer the network, including defining users, security, logon scripts, and access control permissions

Both accounts perform the same basic functions. In both cases, additional groups can be created with access equivalent to the Admin account.

NetWare Asynchronous
Communication Services (NACS) &
NetWare Access Server (NAS)

A combination of hardware and software components that enables users to access and share modem pools, minicomputer ports, and X.25 services for both dial-in network access and dial-out asynchronous communications..

Remote Access Service (RAS)

Windows NT Advanced Server RAS allows up to 256 dial-up users to access Windows NT networks via modem pools, X.25, or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) lines. Once connected, users have access to the same resources as if the were directly connected to the network.

RAS supports 32 more connections. No Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) services have been incorporated into the NACS product.
Unlike NACS, RAS does not support dial-out asynchronous communications, nor are Macintosh clients supported for dial-in access.

NetWare Btrieve

Server-based record management system. Provides high performance, secure data management functions. Has two components: the server manager and the Btrieve® requester.

Btrieve

Btrieve has been tested successfully as a third party add-on product for Microsoft networks. Applications written to Btrieve specifications provide high performance secure data management functions

Btrieve is not yet available for Windows NT Workstation and NT Server.

NetWare Core Protocol (NCP)

Structured rules defining how workstations request services from the server and how servers interpret and respond to those requests. Requests are typically for file, print or account manipulation.

Server Message Blocks (SMB)

Structured rules defining how workstations request services from the server and how servers interpret and respond to those requests. Requests are typically for file, print or account manipulation.

SMB protocol is written to use the NetBIOS interface where NCP writes directly to protocol-based sockets.

NetWare Directory Services (NDS)

Provides and integrated view of your entire network, provides a single login and password for users and administrators, and gives a single graphical interface for your administrative tasks.

Trusted Domains

Provides single login for users and centralized management.

 

NetWare Distributed Management Services (NDMS)

A suite of integrated products giving the flexibility to customize a network and system management solution. It is designed to cut the costs and complexity of managing multivendor networks.

Systems Management Server (SMS)

SMS includes desktop inventory management.

 

NetWare for Macintosh

File, print and routing services that provides services to Apple Macintosh Computers.

Services for Macintosh

Provides an AppleTalk network protocol stack and integrates LocalTalk-, EtherTalk-, or TokenTalk-equipped Macs into a Windows NT Server network. Mac® clients are fully integrated with security and name services.

Services for the Macintosh is tightly integrated with the Windows NT Server domain security, so any server can authenticate a Mac client.

NetWare for SAA

A set of NLMs that allows an NetWare 3.x server to become a gateway to SNA-based networks.

SNA Server

A 32-bit NT-based gateway application that allows any TCP/IP-, IPX-, or NetBEUI-based network to connect to SNA-based networks.

SNA Server can service NetWare clients as well as MS network clients.

NetWare for UNIX

Provides NetWare services on general purpose operating systems. NetWare for UNIX® can run multi-user applications and simultaneously function as a NetWare server. It allows users to extend access from their business-critical applications running on UNIX.

LAN Manager for UNIX (LMU)

An implementation of Microsoft Windows networking for servers that run UNIX variants. LMU allows Microsoft clients to access data stored on UNIX hosts. LMU is based on SMB, a set of protocols developed by Microsoft that are now an X/Open standard. It allows users to extend access from their business-critical applications running on UNIX.

Close match

NetWare Global MHS

Set of NLMs provides robust store-and-forward capabilities which support E-mail, calendar and scheduling, and fax services This E-Mail platform supports a multitude of gateway formats such as X.400 and MHS.

Messaging API (MAPI);
Microsoft Mail for PC networks

Robust store-and-forward E-mail messaging system. Supports E-mail, calendaring, fax, and a multitude of gateways including X.400, MHS, MCI, Internet, PROFS®, SNADS and more. Developers can utilize MAPI to message-enable applications.

Microsoft bundles a complete e-mail client and workgroup server with the Windows family, MHS requires 3rd-party mail to run on top of MHS. Global MHS includes an MS Mail driver to allow MS Mail to run on top of Global MHS.

NetWare Licensing Services (NetWare LS)

Allows independent software vendors to build licensing and metering features into their applications, and enables administrators to monitor the usage statistic of all the applications of the network to better choose from different licensing options.

Systems Management Server (SMS)

Allows you to monitor all the versions running of the desktops and servers.

 

NetWare Lite for DOS and Windows

Simple inexpensive peer-to-peer network operating system allowing as few as 2 PCs to share information, applications, and other PC resources. Designed for small workgroups, it is completely compatible with MS Windows 3.0 and 3.1

Microsoft Windows for Work Groups 3.11

Easy to use peer-to-peer network operating system allowing as few as 2 PCs to share information, applications and other PC resources including fax boards and printers. Fully compatible with the rest of the MS networking operating system family.

MS Windows for Workgroups has built in fax support and is compatible with NetWare, where NetWare Lite does not interoperate with NetWare 2.2, 3.1x, or 4.x.

NetWare Loadable Module (NLM)

A server-based software module that can be dynamically loaded on or unloaded from the server without having to restart the server.

Application

Not a direct equivalent. All Windows NT-based server applications are written to one of several common API's, including DOS, Win16, Win32®, OS/2, or POSIX. These server applications can also be written to communicate with network client applications via an assortment of network IPC APIs.

Applications for Windows NT run in protected subsystems in user space and do not have to be specially written for the Operating System (OS). By nature they are dynamically loaded and unloaded. NLMs must be specially designed and compiled so that they can run in kernel space.

NetWare Management Agent (NMA)

Runs on NetWare 3.1x and NetWare 4.x. Acts as a universal interface between NetWare Services Manager and the managed resources of a NetWare 3.1X server. Its two primary functions are to allow server resources to register as manageable objects and provides a set of functions to support the management and monitoring of objects.

Remote Administration

Microsoft incorporates Remote Administration into Windows NT Server. This feature allows the administering of a remote servers by selecting the server in that domain. Once a users establishes Admin privileges on that domain they may manage any server located on that domain. Also see Domains

NMA is an add-on product for NetWare, where
Microsoft incorporates remote administration into their network operating system.

NetWare Name Services

When added to a NetWare network, it enables users to access resources on multiple servers with a single login. For network Admins it simplifies the task of maintaining consistent user environments.

Domains

Domains are incorporated into the Microsoft LAN operating system products. They allow users to access resources on multiple servers with a single login. For Administrators, they simply the task of maintaining consistent user environments.

NetWare Name Services is an additional add-on, where Domains have been incorporated into Microsoft networks since LAN Manager. Windows NT Advanced Server extends this concept with "Trusted Domains" to allow single-login access into a multi-domain environment.

NetWare NFS

Transparently integrates UNIX Systems with NetWare. UNIX users can use NetWare NFS to share files and print to NetWare and UNIX printers using the Line Printer Daemon (LPD) print service.

NFS

Available as a third party add-on, runs on top of Microsoft Windows NT TCP/IP.

N/A

NetWare Support Encyclopedia (NSE)

Technical CD containing solutions to problems, bug fixes, and technical bulletins. Updated and released 12 times per year.

Microsoft TechNet CD

Technical CD containing solutions to problems, bug fixes, and technical bulletins. Updated and distributed 12 times per year.

Close match.

NetWare Users' Conference (NETUCON)

NetWare user conference designed to keep NetWare customers abreast of current and new products, also to provide demonstrations of products by giving hands on examples.

Microsoft Network Users Group

Microsoft Network User Group designed to keep Microsoft customers abreast of current and new products, also to provide demonstrations of products by giving hands on examples of future and current software and Networking applications.

Close match.

NetWare Users International (NUI)

Independent NetWare charter that directs its membership to promote the exchange of information among users of NetWare related products worldwide.

None

 

 

Novell Authorized Education Center

Educational partners with Novell that provide the channel through which Novell leverages its training expertise.

Microsoft Authorized Technical Education Center

Microsoft partners that have been authorized and certified by Microsoft to provide Microsoft-developed training courses on Microsoft systems products.

Close match

Novell Authorized Reseller Program - Authorized, Gold, Platinum & UNIX Master levels

An organization that meets the sales and technical staff requirements to sell and support NetWare networking products. Based on the quantity of technical staffing organizations receive a Gold or Platinum status. UNIX Master is given to a company or organization that has met the UNIX requirements. Novell provides sales leads to organizations that are under this program.

Microsoft Solution Providers - Partner and Member levels

An organization that meets more stringent sales and technical staff requirements than plain resellers, these organizations are usually developers, VARs, or system integrators with the skills needed to build complex solutions involving Microsoft system products.

Microsoft's program is focused more at value-added services, while Novells is focused more at software sales.

Novell Authorized Service Center (NASC)

Company or organization that has met the staffing criteria, including CNE and ECNE certification. NASCs will be given leads directly form Novell. Novell does not have a direct service center within their corporate structure.

Microsoft Certified Support Center

 

 

Novell Consulting Services (NCS)

Systems and software consultants are available on a contract basis to help meet specific design needs. These services are available in the United States, and with some limitations, worldwide.

Microsoft Consulting Services (MCS)

Consultants are Microsoft system architects with experience and expertise in Microsoft technology, methodologies, and tools, designated to help organizations through complex and strategic problems. In conjunction with 3rd-party vendors (Solution Providers), Microsoft offers customers a number of services customized to their unique environment. .

Microsoft extends their consulting service by leveraging the skills of their Solution Provider channel

ODI (Open Data-Link Interface)

Specification defining how network protocol drivers and adapters communicate. Permits multiple protocols to share single or multiple NICs.
Software layer between NIC and higher level protocols is known as the Link Support Layer (LSL).

NDIS Network Driver Interface Specification

Specification defining how network protocol drivers and adapters communicate. Permits multiple protocols to share single or multiple NICs.
Network Adapter drivers are known as Media Access Control (MAC)
drivers.
Software layer between NIC and higher level protocols is known as the Protocol Manager.

MS has developed protected mode versions of NetBEUI, IPX/SPX and TCP/IP for Windows for Workgroups 3.11 that reduce DOS memory consumption. All ODI drivers run in real mode..

PCONSOLE

Creates, assigns, modifies, deletes, and monitors print queues, print servers, and printers. Sends, modifies, pauses, resumes, and deletes print jobs. Quickly installs basic print services.

Print Manager

Windows NT program that provides both configuration, monitoring, and management of printers and print queues.

Close match.

Personal NetWare

Peer-to-peer network operating system enabling users to share their directories, printers and CD-ROM's.
Uses ODI drivers and Virtual Loadable Modules (VLMs).
Supports Windows 3.1

Windows for Workgroups & Windows for Workgroup MS-DOS Add-on.

Peer-to-Peer Network Operating System enabling users to share directories, printers and CD-ROM's.
Uses either NDIS drivers, ODI drivers, or a combination of both.

Security models are different. Personal NetWare servers use a scaled-back user-level security scheme, where access is controlled on a directory basis. Windows for Workgroups uses share-level security.
Windows for Workgroups integrates well with NetWare environments. It supports simultaneous connection to both NetWare and Microsoft Servers. Personal NetWare does not integrate into a Microsoft network.

Pserver

Print Server. Both an NLM running on 3.x, 4.x servers and an executable (*.EXE) running on a dedicated DOS workstation.

Print Manager

Print Manager incorporates utilities necessary for creating queues, defining printers and establishing their association.

NetWare requires PCONSOLE, SPOOL, PSC, PRINTDEF & PRINTCON to complete setup of printing environment, while Windows NT only requires Print Manager.
Pserver supports servicing queues from multiple servers.

RCONSOLE

Remote Console utility used to manage NetWare servers from NetWare clients. Administrators can load and unload modules, execute all console commands, and copy files to the file server's NetWare directories or DOS partition

No direct equivalent

User Manager for Domains, Server Manager for Domains, Print Manager all provide portions of the capability to remotely manage Windows NT Workstations and Windows NT Servers. However, some configuration functions must be executed on the console of the server in question.

RCONSOLE remotely executes commands on the server, while the Windows NT management utilities use interprocess communications.

Requestor - DOS, OS/2 & NT

ODI and monolithic requestors for MS-DOS and Windows, OS/2, and Windows NT run on client PCs and allow each client to connect to NetWare file servers across a network.

Client redirectors

NDIS-based client redirectors are available for MS-DOS, Windows, Windows for Workgroups 3.11, MS OS/2 1.3, IBM® OS/2 2.1, Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server. Allows each client to connect to Microsoft file servers across a network.

The Microsoft redirectors can also be configured to allow connectivity to both NetWare and Microsoft servers.

Rights Security

The combination of trustee assignments and inherited rights mask. The intersection of these 2 access control mechanisms determine the actual access rights, known as effective rights, a user or group has to a particular directory or file.
There are 8 settings:
Supervisory
Read
Write
Create
Erase
Modify
File Scan
Access Control
The effect of the above depend on whether they are applied to a directory or a file.

File/Directory Security

Applies to files and directories on NTFS partitions only (FAT, HPFS, and also NTFS partitions can be protected against network access using Share Security).
There are 8 settings:
Read
Write
Execute
Delete
Change Permissions
Take Ownership
Full Control (All)
No Access
The effect of the above depend on whether they are applied to a directory or a file.

In Windows NTFS security, "No Access" overrides all other permissions. All files and directories have an owner, which initially (by default) is the creator. Owners have complete control over their files and directories, and even Administrators cannot access restricted files or directories unless they first take ownership. In the Windows NT security model, ownership can only be taken, not given.

Search Drive

Search drives are equivalent to the DOS PATH command. Specifies which server directories a program will search to execute an application.

PATH

The PATH environment variable specifies which directories a program will search to execute an application, can include both local and network drives.

Close match.

Sequenced Packet Exchange (SPX)

A Novell communication protocol that monitors network transmission to ensure successful delivery. SPX is derived from Novell's IPX using the Xerox Sequenced Packet Protocol. SPX enhances the IPX protocol by supervising the data sent out across the network.

NWLink

Microsoft's NDIS-compliant version of IPX/SPX supplied by
Microsoft, included with Windows NT workstation & Windows NT Server.

Interoperable over a network.

Service Advertising Protocol

A protocol service providing nodes such as file servers, print servers, and gateway servers to
advertise their services and addresses. Clients use SAP to determine what network resources are available.

Browser Service

Service that broadcasts shared files, directories, and printers categorized by first by domain/workgroup and then by server name.

Since Microsoft network usually includes peer services, the Browser is not dependent on a central server. One of the peers on the network will always take over the Browser service if an existing Browser server is shut down.

SQL Server for NetWare, Sybase

SQL-based relational database designed for distributed networked environments. Supports TCP/IP and SPX/IPX protocols. Allows interoperability with all platforms running SYBASE®.

Microsoft SQL Server 4.2 and SQL Server NT

SQL-based relational database designed for distributed networked environments. Supports TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, and NetBEUI protocols. Allows interoperability with all platforms running SYBASE.

NetWare servers usually are single-purpose database servers because of their NLM architecture. Since a RDBMS looks just like any other application to the operating system, Microsoft servers can provide file and print services, run multiple applications at once, and still be stable.

Storage Management Services (SMS)

Provides reliable backup/restore capabilities for enhanced data and storage solutions for all versions of NetWare.

 

Backup is part of Windows NT Server.

 

Supervisor

Highest-level of server authority. Automatically created when server is installed. Cannot be deleted.

Administrator

Highest-level of server authority. Automatically created when server is installed. Cannot be deleted.

"Supervisor" has total access to all files and directories. "Administrator" does not automatically have rights to files created by users, but can obtain rights by first taking ownership & then granting itself desired rights.

Supervisor /Admin.

"Supervisor and Admin" for NetWare 4.01 is the user account with complete access to all file and printer devices. This account is also used to administer the NetWare network, including defining users, security, logon scripts, and access control rights.

Admin/Administrator

Administrator is the user account with complete access to all file and printer devices. The Administrator account is also used to administer the a Microsoft network including define users, security, logon scripts and access control permissions.

Close match.

Supervisor Equivalence

Account property which makes users have same resource rights and authority as Supervisor.

Administrators Group Membership

Members of the local group "Administrators" have same rights and authority as Administrator.

Close match.

SYSCON

Administrative utility for managing user accounts, groups, and auditing. DOS-based menu-driven format. SYSCON also manages accounting features of NetWare.

User Manager for Domains

Windows NT Advanced Server graphical administrative utility for managing user accounts, groups, and security policies.

User Manager. for Domains also sets up Domain trust relationships that enable access to a multi-domain environment with a single logon.
Microsoft networks to not include usage accounting functions.

System Fault Tolerance (SFT)

Duplicating data on multiple storage devices so that if one storage device fails, the data is available from another device. Various options are available, with the highest level called SFT III.(complete server duplexing).

Fault Tolerance

Windows NT Advanced Server and Lan Manager both support disk mirroring, disk duplexing, and disk striping with parity.

Microsoft has no equivalent to SFT III. Microsoft bundles fault tolerance with Windows NT Advanced Server and Lan Manager, while Novell packages and charges for SFT as a separate product.

Trustee rights

A user or group's access permission assignments for directories and files.
A user with rights to a specific directory or file is said to be a trustee of that resource.

File Security

One of two methods of controlling user rights to directories and files. Requires the Windows NT File System (NTFS).
Users can be assigned rights on a per directory or per file basis.
Share Permissions is the other method and can work in conjunction with Windows NT File Security (See Share Security).

The network SUPERVISOR has all rights to all directories and files. This is also the case for the LAN Manager account ADMIN.
In Windows NT the account ADMINISTRATOR can be denied access to resources, but can regain access by taking ownership and then granting himself desired access rights. The ADMINISTRATOR cannot return ownership to the original owner. This serves as an audit trail for the original owner.

UnixWare

Provides NetWare services on top of a System V Release 4 UNIX operating system. UnixWare can run multi-user applications and simultaneously function as a NetWare server.

Lan Manager for UNIX. (LMU)

An OEM implementation of Lan Manager for servers that run UNIX variants. LMU allows Microsoft clients to access data stored on UNIX hosts. LMU is based on SMB, a set of protocols developed by Microsoft that are now an X/Open standard.

Close match.
Windows NT Advanced Server provides much of the same capabilities and characteristics as UnixWare, and can support POSIX applications.

Value added Process (VAP),

VAPS are implemented in the NetWare 2.x product line. They are enhancements to the basic operating system. VAPS can be loaded and unloaded as needed. One VAP that ships with NetWare 2.x is the print server.

Services

Services are additional utilities that enhance the functionality of Microsoft file servers. These additional services can be started or stopped. An example of a Microsoft services the Browser service

All Microsoft services run in protected user space just like an application

Virtual Loadable Modules (VLMs)

Net Requestor architecture used by NetWare 4.01 DOS clients and required to connect to 4.01 servers. Allows all network components to be linked into virtual memory, thus freeing up low memory for applications. VLMs may be used to access NetWare 2.x and 3.x servers as well.

Virtual Device Drivers

Network Drivers designed to run in virtual mode (also known as "VxD"s). They allow network drivers and protocols to be linked in to virtual memory which communicate through the Windows interface.

VLMS are not designed specifically for Windows. They allow DOS drivers to be linked into virtual memory and can be used for DOS only network applications. The VxD is a virtual driver architecture for Windows that can be used for other types of drivers beside network drivers.
To upgrade from NetWare 3.x to 4.01, the older clients must be replaced with 4.01 client utilizing VLMs. All MS NOSs are backward compatible with older clients redirectors.

Volume

The 'root' of the NetWare server directory structure. A Volume refers to a physical amount of disk space which can be part or all of a non-DOS partition on the server. Multiple Volumes can be on a single disk. Volumes can span multiple disks.

Partition

The 'root' of the MS server directory structure. A physical amount of disk space and can be part or all of a server's disk. Multiple partitions can be on a single disk.

Users mapped to directories within a NetWare Volume can walk back up the tree to the root of the volume itself. The root of an MS partition is only accessible over the network if the root directory is shared and the user connects directly to it.

Volume-Disk Restrictions

Limit to amount of disk space user can have on a specific Volume.

User Storage Limit

In LAN Manager an upper limit for space used by a home directory can be specified.
In Windows NT there is no such setting.

The limit in NetWare produces the same effect as running out of space on a local drive does. On LAN Manager the limit issues an alert message but does not prevent the user from consuming more space.

Microsoft terms with no direct Novell equivalent

Novell Term

Description

Microsoft Term

Description

Differences

N/A

 

Event Viewer

A Windows NT graphical utility that logs and displys all important system, security, and application events. Users can view event logs on any other Windows NT-based server on the network if they have permission.

 

N/A

 

Local Logon

Ability to logon at the server itself and run programs. Windows NT permissions control who has LOCAL LOGON authority.
NT Security is still enforced for files located in NTFS formatted partitions.

The NetWare server can run on top of UNIX and OS/2 2.x but in these cases access to the overall system is controlled by the host OS and not the Novell OS.
On an Intel® and DOS based dedicated NetWare server the user does not logon at the server.

N/A

 

Registry

Windows NT hierarchical database of configuration parameters for the entire operating system and 32-bit applications

Because Windows NT is a multi-user OS, the Registry also stores individual settings and parameters for each user

N/A

 

Share name

Directories on servers must first be shared prior to users connecting to them over the network. Non-shared directories can still be accessed if they are subdirectories of an already shared directory.

This is an essential security function on a peer network.

N/A

 

Share security

A simple, easy to use security scheme for Windows for Workgroups or for enterprise resources with uniform access rights requirements.
Access rights are associated with the Share name and password pair used to connect to the directory. Rights are uniform down through the directory tree within the Share.
Share security only controls access over a network connection. It does not apply to a user logged on locally.

 

N/A

 

SMP
Symmetrical Multi-Processor

Windows NT supports for 2 or more processors in a single server. Load (threads) is automatically balanced between processors.

No Novell equivalent, although Novell has announced that the intend to support Asymmetric Multi Processing in a future release of NetWare

NetWare terms without Microsoft equivalents

FleX/IP

Designed for environments where NetWare, UNIX and TCP/IP systems need to communicate. It provides a cost-effective way for UNIX and NetWare users to share printers and files (via ftp), regardless of their native computing environments. Also enables UNIX network supervisors to manage NetWare servers from the X Windows environment.

N/A

 

 

Transaction Tracking System

Protects database applications from corruption by backing out incomplete transactions that result from a failure in a network component. In NetWare it also protects the bindery and the queuing database file from corruption.

N/A

 

 

NetWare Link State Protocol (NLSP)

A Novell routing protocol which tracks the status of other routers and links. This protocol adapts more quickly to network topology changes than do distance-vector protocols.

N/A

 

 

Storage Management Systems

Resides on a NetWare server and provides a reliable and efficient method of creating backup and restore applications for NetWare servers. Additionally, backup and restore operation can be created to specifically meet customer expectations.

N/A

 

 

OracleWare

NLM-based Oracle® 7 RDBMS built specifically for NetWare 3.1X and 4.X environments.

N/A

 

Oracle has announced a version of Oracle 7 compatible with Windows NT to ship in 1994.

Packet Burst Protocol

(Burst mode) is designed to transmit multipacket messages efficiently over an network, which can result in faster data transmission between workstations and servers. Is enabled by loading the PBURST.NLM.

N/A

 

 

Network Navigator Electronic Software Distribution

Makes the process of installing or updating software, including new applications, data, client operating systems, and network operation systems, completely transparent to users. Uses the MS Windows GUI interface.

N/A

 

 

NetWare UNIX Client (NUC)

Software that allows a UnixWare system to behave as a client to NetWare servers.

N/A

 

 

NetWare FTAM from Firefox

Permits a wide variety of OSI FTAM clients to access the NetWare file systems and enables DOS workstation users to attach to OSI networks and communicate with FTAM host on the Network. Is fully compliant with the US Government OSI Protocols (GOSIP) .

N/A

 

 

0296
Part No. 098-64337

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