Chapter 13 - Gateway Service For Netware

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With Gateway Service for NetWare (GSNW), you can create a gateway through which Microsoft client computers without NetWare client software can access NetWare file and print resources. You can make gateways for resources located on NetWare Directory Service (NDS) trees as well as for resources on servers running NetWare 2.x or later with bindery security. These resources include volumes, directories, dirmaps, printers, and print queues.

GSNW also enables users working locally at the Windows NT Server computer to directly access NetWare file and print resources, both on NDS trees and on servers with bindery security.

GSNW depends on and works with another NetWare compatibility feature of Windows NT Server: the NWLink protocol. NWLink is an implementation of the internetworking packet exchange (IPX) and sequenced packet exchange (SPX) transport protocols used by the NetWare network.

The Microsoft implementations of the IPX, SPX, and Novell NetBIOS protocols can seamlessly coexist with other protocols on the same network adapter card.

How a Gateway Works

GSNW acts as a bridge between the server message block (SMB) protocol used by the Windows NT network and the NetWare core protocol (NCP) used by the NetWare network. When a gateway is enabled, network clients running Microsoft client software can access NetWare files and printers without having to run NetWare client software locally. The following figure shows an example of a file gateway configuration:


File Gateway Example 

For file access, the gateway server redirects one of its own drives to the NetWare volume and then shares that drive to other Microsoft clients. The file gateway uses a NetWare account on the Windows NT Server computer to create a validated connection to the NetWare server. This connection appears on the Windows NT Server computer as a redirected drive. When you share the redirected drive, it becomes like any other shared resource on the Windows NT Server computer.

For example, suppose you want to create a gateway from the computer Airedale (running GSNW) to the NetWare NDS folder \\Nw4\Server1\Org_Unit.Org\Data volume on the NetWare server NW4. When activating the gateway, you specify \\Nw4\Server1\Org_Unit.Org\Data as the NetWare resource, and you might specify Nw_Data as the share name for Microsoft clients. Microsoft clients would then refer to this resource as \\Airedale\Nw_Data.

After the gateway connection is established, it is disconnected only if the computer is turned off or if the Windows NT Server administrator disconnects the shared resource or disables the gateway. Logging off the Windows NT Server computer does not, by itself, disconnect the gateway.

Note Because requests from Microsoft networking clients are being processed through the gateway, access is slower than direct access from the client to the NetWare network. Clients that require frequent access to NetWare resources should run Windows NT Workstation with the Client Service for NetWare or Windows 95 with its NetWare client software, to achieve higher performance.

Installing Gateway Service for NetWare

GSNW is not installed by default when you install Windows NT Server: You install it from the Windows NT Server CD-ROM. (The NWLink transport protocol is also installed if it is not already on the server.)

Important Before installing the Gateway Service, remove any existing third-party network service or client software, including Novell NetWare client software.

You must be logged on as a member of the Administrators group to install and configure the Gateway Service.

To install the Gateway Service 

  1. Click Start, then click Settings, then click Control Panel

  2. Double-click the Network icon. 

  3. Click the Services tab. 

  4. Click Add.

  5. Select Gateway (and Client) Services for NetWare from the list, then click Add

  6. In the resulting dialog box, type the path to your Windows NT Server CD-ROM in the box, and then click OK

  7. When the file copying is complete, reboot the computer. 


An icon labeled GSNW is added to Control Panel.

By default, the NetWare network is placed first in the network search order. For more information on the network search order, see Help.

Specifying a Default Tree and Context or Preferred Server

When you first log on after GSNW is installed, you are prompted to set your default tree and context or your preferred server. The tree and context define the position of the user object of the user name you use to log in to an NDS tree. A preferred server is the NetWare server to which you are automatically connected when you log on, if your network does not use NDS.

You can have either a default tree and context or a preferred server, but not both. (In NDS environments, a default tree and context are the common choice.) If you select a default tree and context, you can still access NetWare servers that use bindery security.

To change your tree and context later, use the GSNW icon in Control Panel.

Creating a Gateway

Before you can create a gateway on a Windows NT Server computer:

  • You must have a user account on the NetWare network with the necessary rights for the resources you want to access. 

  • The NetWare server must have a group named Ntgateway with the necessary rights for the resources you want to access. 

  • The NetWare user account you use must be a member of the Ntgateway group.

The NetWare user account you use to enable gateways can be either an NDS account or a bindery account. If the server will have gateways to both NDS resources and resources on servers running bindery security, the user account must be a bindery account. (This account can connect to NDS resources through bindery emulation). If you create gateways only to NDS resources, the account can be an NDS account.

Creating a gateway is a two-step process:

  1. First you enable gateways on the server running Windows NT Server. When you enable a gateway, you must type the name and password of the user account that has access to the NetWare server and is a member of the Ntgateway group on that NetWare server. 

    You need to do this only once for each server that will act as a gateway. 

  2. For each volume or print queue to which you want to create a gateway, you activate a gateway. When you activate a gateway, you specify the NetWare resource and a share name that Microsoft client users will use to connect to the resource. 

    To activate a gateway for a volume, use the GSNW icon in Control Panel. To activate a gateway for a print queue, use the Add Printers wizard. 

    If you are activating a gateway to an NDS resource, and the gateway user account is a bindery user account, you should specify the resource using the bindery context name. If you are using a NDS user account, and you do not plan on also creating gateways to bindery resources, than you can specify the NDS resource name. 

Security for gateway resources is provided on two levels:

  • On the computer running Windows NT Server and acting as a gateway, you can set share-level permissions for each resource made available through the gateway. 

  • On the NetWare file server, the NetWare administrator can assign trustee rights to the user account used for the gateway or to the Ntgateway group. These rights will be enforced for all Microsoft client users who access the resource through the gateway. There is no auditing of gateway access. 

Connecting Directly to NetWare Resources

In addition to providing gateway technology, GSNW enables users working locally at the server to access NetWare resources directly, just as Client Service for NetWare provides this service to Windows NT Workstation users. The information in this section applies to users working locally at a server, accessing NetWare resources directly—not to Microsoft clients accessing resources through a gateway. (This information does apply to users of Client Service for NetWare on Windows NT Workstation.)

NDS trees (as well as NetWare servers running bindery security) appear in the NetWare or Compatible Network list in the Explorer. Double-click a tree name to expand it, and then double-click any container object to expand its contents and structure.

To map a local drive to a volume on the NDS tree, select the volume, then on the File menu click Map Network Drive. You can connect to and assign a local drive letter to any volume, folder, or dirmap anywhere in the tree hierarchy (for which you have credentials).

To connect to an NDS printer, use the Add Printer wizard, just as you would to connect to any network printer.

If you have a default tree and context, once you have logged on you do not need to log on again or supply another password to access any volume in your default tree. Accessing another tree prompts you to supply a full context (including user name) for that tree.

For more information on connecting to network resources using Explorer, see Help.

Changing the NetWare Password

Users who use either GSNW or Client Service for NetWare to directly access NetWare resources can change their passwords on NDS trees on the network. To do this, use the standard Windows NT Server password changing procedure:

Press CTRL+ALT+DEL, and then specify NetWare or Compatible Network in the Domain box of the Change Password dialog box).

To change the password on NetWare servers running bindery security, use the setpass command on the NetWare server. (Or, if the network runs Microsoft Directory Service Manager for NetWare, you can use a single command to change both Windows NT Server and NetWare bindery passwords.)

Logon Scripts

When a user running either GSNW or Client Service for NetWare to directly access NetWare resources first makes a connection to a particular NetWare server, the user's logon script (if any) runs. Users who connect to NetWare resources through a gateway do not have a logon script run, however.

Managing NetWare File Attributes

NetWare file attributes are not exactly the same as those on Windows NT Server. The following file rights mappings are applied when a NetWare file is opened through GSNW:

Windows NT file attributes

NetWare file attributes

A (Archive)


S (System)


H (Hidden)


R (Read Only)

Ro, Di (Delete Inhibit), Ri (Rename Inhibit)

GSNW does not support the following NetWare file attributes: RW (Read Write), S (Shareable), T (Transactional), P (Purge), Ra (Read Audit), Wa (Write Audit), and Ci (Copy Inhibit).

When you copy a file from a Microsoft networking client to the NetWare file server by means of GSNW, the Ro, A, Sy, and H file attributes are preserved.

When you use a computer running GSNW to directly access NetWare servers, you can use the NetWare utilities, such as filer and rights, to set attributes that are not supported by the Windows NT-to-NetWare file rights mapping. For more information about other supported utilities, see the next section.

Running NetWare Utilities and NetWare-Aware Applications

With Windows NT Server and GSNW, you can run many standard NetWare utilities from the command prompt. For some administrative functions, you must use Windows NT Server management tools. In addition, GSNW supports many NetWare-aware applications.

The following sections list the supported NetWare utilities and explain the Windows NT Server administrative utilities you can use to manage the NetWare network. It also lists supported NetWare-aware applications and describes the files you must have in order to run them.

Supported NetWare Utilities

Windows NT supports many NetWare utilities, enabling you to manage the NetWare network from a computer running Windows NT Workstation or Windows NT Server. Some additional files supplied either with Windows NT Server or with NetWare might be required by some utilities. For detailed information, see "Requirements for Running NetWare-Aware Applications," later in this chapter.

Windows NT supports the following MS-DOS–based NetWare utilities:

































Note If you run a utility (such as rconsole on 3.1x NetWare servers) outside of the Sys:Public directory, the utility might ask for the Sys$Msg.Dat file, which is located in the Sys:Public directory. To avoid this message, add Sys:Public to your path.

NetWare Utility Behavior Supplied by Windows NT Commands

The Windows NT net use command or Explorer perform the same functions as the NetWare attach, login, and logout utilities.

The Windows NT net view command performs the same function as the NetWare slist utility.

The net use command is similar to the capture command for printing when MS-DOS–based and Windows-based applications must print to a specific port. In addition, you can use the Add Printer wizard to connect to NetWare print queues.

You can use the net use command to connect to volumes and printers in NDS trees, as well as on other NetWare servers.

For more detailed command syntax, see Help.

NetWare-Aware Applications

Many NetWare-aware applications run on Windows NT Server and GSNW as if they were running on a NetWare client computer. However, not all NetWare-aware applications are supported, and of those that are, many require special files supplied with either NetWare or with Windows NT Server.

Supported NetWare-Aware Applications

The NetWare-aware applications shown in the following table are supported. They were tested on x86, MIPS, Digital Alpha, and PowerPC platforms. Most of these applications require the use of the Nwipxspx.dll, Netware.drv, and Nwnetapi.dll files; other prerequisites for each application are listed in the table. Following the table are descriptions of the services and files required for these applications to be supported.




DCA™ IRMA™ LAN for MS-DOS to Novell's SAA



Paradox for MS-DOS



Btrieve® requester (Brequest.exe)



NetWare 3270 LAN Workstation for MS-DOS


Runs only on x86 platform




Attachmate Extra! for Windows



DCA™ IRMA™ LAN for Windows



Btrieve® requester (BREQUEST.EXE)



Gupta SQLBase® for NetWare systems


Btrieve support
Must be connected to a NetWare server prior to loading

Lotus Notes®, SPX connectivity option


Must be connected to a NetWare server prior to loading

Lotus CCMail for Windows



Wall Data Rumba for Windows


Must add Wdnovtsr.exe to your Autoexec.nt file

NetWare 3270 LAN Workstation for Windows


Runs only on x86 platform

Requirements for Running NetWare-Aware Applications

The following files and services might be required in order for MS-DOS–based NetWare utilities and NetWare-aware applications to be supported.

Note The Novell VLM Interface is not supported. (For example, NWADMIN will not run on a computer running GSNW.)


Many 16-bit NetWare-aware applications (including many listed in the preceding tables) require Nwipxspx.dll from Novell. If you have previously used the application with another Microsoft Windows-based operating system and are using the same computer for Windows NT, Nwipxspx.dll exists on your system. If you start the application and the application cannot find this file, check your path by typing path at the command prompt. Verify that a copy of the Nwipxspx.dll exists. If it does not, obtain a copy from Novell, and copy it to the \systemroot\system32 directory.

If you are running these applications on the MIPS, Digital Alpha, or PowerPC platforms, you must obtain Nwipxspx.dll from Novell. Copy Nwipxspx.dll to the \systemroot\System32 directory.

If you need to copy Nwipxspx.dll to your Windows NT Server computer or modify your path statement, you must log off and then log on for the changes to take effect.

Netware.drv, Nwnetapi.dll, and Nwcalls.dll

NetWare-aware applications that use the NetWare application programming interface (API) to send and receive NetWare core protocol (NCP) packets might require Netware.drv and either Nwnetapi.dll or, for more recent versions of NetWare, Nwcalls.dll.

Netware.drv is installed in the \systemroot\system32 directory when you install the Gateway Service. If you have previously used a NetWare-aware application on the same computer using another Microsoft Windows-based operating system, Nwnetapi.dll or Nwcalls.dll is probably already installed on your computer. If your application cannot find Nwnetapi.dll or Nwcalls.dll, be sure the appropriate file is installed on your computer and is in your computer's search path. If you are running the application on the Digital Alpha or MIPS platform or you can't locate one of these .DLL files on your computer, contact Novell to obtain a copy of the appropriate file, and then install it in your \systemroot\system32 directory. If you cannot load your NetWare-aware application with the version of Netware.drv installed with the Gateway Service, replace Netware.drv with the corresponding file supplied by Novell, dated 10/27/92 with a file size of 126,144 bytes.

If you copied any of these files to your Windows NT Server computer or modified your Path statement during the current Windows NT work session, you must log off and then log on for the changes to take effect.

Special Considerations for Individual NetWare-Aware Applications

If you do not have a default tree and context or preferred server and you have not connected to any NetWare server, you must first create a connection to a NetWare server. For more information about connecting to NetWare servers, see "Connecting Directly to NetWare Resources" earlier in this chapter.


If you are running MS-DOS–based or 16-bit Windows-based applications that require the Btrieve requester, Brequest.exe, you must modify the Autoexec.nt file located in \systemroot\system32 so that the applications can find the Btrieve requester. Find the location of Brequest.exe on your computer and append location information in the Autoexec.nt file. The line you should add to Autoexec.nt depends on the computer you are running.

For example, if Brequest.exe is located in the C:\Btrieve directory, add the following line to Autoexec.nt on Windows NT Server:


On Windows NT Workstation, add this line:

lh c:\btrieve\brequest.exe

Then log off and log on for the change to take effect.

Attachmate Extra! Extended for MS-DOS

If Extra! batch files are run from a console window, make the first line of the batch files command /c so that the Extra! hot keys work after Extra! has initialized.

Attachmate Extra! for Windows IPX/SPX Connectivity

Attachmate Extra! for Windows requires IPXINTFC, a terminate-and-stay-resident (TSR) utility. This TSR must be loaded by Autoexec.nt prior to the DOSX TSR being loaded.

For example, suppose Attachmate Extra! for Windows has been installed in the C:\Extrawin subdirectory. In Autoexec.nt, make sure the following three lines appear in the order shown:

lh c:\extrawin\ipxintfc
REM Install DPMI support
lh winnt\system32\dosx 

Log off and log on to Windows NT for the changes to take effect.

Troubleshooting the Gateway Service

This section describes how to troubleshoot various problems that can arise while installing, starting, and running GSNW. Problems are organized into the following categories:.

  • Startup problems 

  • Access problems 

  • Application and print problems 

  • Other network problems 

Startup Problems

Many common startup problems are caused by improper installation of the network adapter card or of the Gateway Service itself. Be sure the network card is installed and configured correctly and that existing installations of NetWare redirectors (such as Novell's NetWare Services for Windows NT) have been removed.

To correct the configuration of your network card or to remove a NetWare redirector, use the Network icon in Control Panel.

Gateway Service Doesn't Start

If the Gateway Service does not start, one of its required services or protocols might be unavailable. First try to start it manually (using the Services icon in Control Panel). If that fails, troubleshoot the problem by using Event Viewer to look at the system log. Look for one of the messages described in the following table:

Source and Message

Recommended action

Service Control Manager
Gateway Service for NetWareterminated with the following error: The system cannot find the specified file.

The Gateway Service was not installed properly. Use the Network icon in Control Panel to remove and reinstall the Gateway Service

Service Control Manager
The NWLink service depends on the NWLinksys services which failed to start because of the following error: The system cannot find the file specified.

The NWLink IPX/SPX Compatible Transport Protocol was not installed properly. Use the Network icon in Control Panel to reinstall NWLink.

Error binding to adapter card cardname.

 Your adapter card might be malfunctioning, or its settings might be incorrect. If your adapter card is not malfunctioning and the NWLink protocol is bound to the correct card, use the Network icon in Control Panel to verify the adapter card settings.

Gateway Service Starts, But Servers Can't Be Found

You might be unable to see NetWare servers because the network frame type is set incorrectly. View the network adapter load line in the NetWare server's Autoexec.ncf file to verify that you are using the correct frame type for the server. For example, suppose a server's network adapter load line is


In this case, the server is bound to a 3Com® 503 ethernet adapter that will accept the raw 802.3 frame format.

Use the Network icon in Control Panel to see the frame type set for your adapter card. If the frame type is "Auto Detected" and NWLink detects any frames of type 802.2 or no frames at all, it sets the frame type to 802.2. If the network adapter card receives frames of type 802.2 but your NetWare network uses some other frame type, you will have to set it manually. For instructions on setting the frame type manually, see online Help.

Access Denied While Creating Gateway

If access is denied when you try to configure a Windows NT Server computer as a file or print gateway, the NetWare user account you have used to enable the gateway might not be a member of the Ntgateway group, or your account or the Ntgateway group might have insufficient trustee rights. For information on setting up the Ntgateway group and assigning trustee rights on the NetWare server, see your NetWare documentation.

Application and Print Problems

To make sure a NetWare application is supported in this release, see the list of supported NetWare-aware applications in "NetWare-Aware Applications," earlier in this chapter. Also verify that any required files mentioned in that section are installed in a directory in the search path of your Windows NT computer.

The default environment for 16-bit programs is too small to accommodate the mapping table created by the NetWare map utility. You must designate as the permanent command interpreter for the Command Prompt window and reset the default environment size allocated to the window. An environment of 4096 bytes is large enough to accommodate the NetWare utility, the mapping table, and the command interpreter.

To make these changes to the environment, enter the following line in Config.nt:

shell=%systemroot%\system32\ /e:4096 

This line causes to be the command interpreter for the window as long as it remains open or until you issue another shell command, and it permanently allocates 4096 bytes to 16-bit programs you run in the window.

Other Network Problems

This section briefly describes other network problems that could affect your ability to install or run the Gateway Service. If network problems persist, use Event Viewer to review the system log information generated during startup.

Duplicate Computer Names

Each computer on a network must have a unique name. If you specify a computer name that is the same as another computer on the network or the same as a workgroup or a domain, the network will not start when you start your computer.

Services or Subsystems Do Not Start

If services or subsystems do not start properly, use the Services or Devices icons in Control Panel to check their status. You can try to start services using the Services icon and start a device with the Devices icon.