Chapter 16 - Windows 98 on MS Networks
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Computers running Microsoft Windows 98 can communicate and share resources with other computers running Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Server, Windows NT Workstation, LAN Manager, and Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS on Microsoft networks. This chapter presents procedures and technical information about using Windows 98 on Microsoft networks.
Important Each computer running Windows 98 must have a client access license if it will access Window NT Server version 3.5 or later servers on a network. For more information, see "Client Access Licenses for Windows NT Server" later in this chapter.
For technical and architectural information about Client for Microsoft Networks and Microsoft's support for clients from other network vendors, see Chapter 29, "Windows 98 Network Architecture."
For information about protocols and adapter drivers, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."
For information about using Client for Microsoft Networks with third-party networks, see Chapter 17, "Windows 98 on Third-Party Networks."
For information about logon, browsing, and resource sharing, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."
For information about security options with Client for Microsoft Networks, see Chapter 9, "Security."
Overview of Windows 98 and MS Networking
Client for Microsoft Networks is the 32-bit, protected-mode network client for Windows 98 that provides the redirector and other software components for Microsoft networking. Client for Microsoft Networks also supports limited interoperability with other Microsoft-compatible server message block–based (SMB) servers such as Samba, IBM LAN Server, IBM OS/2 Warp Server, and DIGITAL PATHWORKS.
You can install Client for Microsoft Networks to serve as the sole network support for Windows 98 or to coexist with Client for NetWare Networks or clients from other network vendors, as described in Chapter 17, "Windows 98 on Third-Party Networks." For technical information about these optional configurations, see Chapter 29, "Windows 98 Network Architecture."
Support for computers running Client for Microsoft Networks includes all the robust networking features built into Windows 98:
Automatic setup, user profiles, and system policies for configuring computers.
Dial-Up Networking, share-level and pass-through user-level security, and remote administration capabilities.
Unified logon and automatic reconnection to network resources.
The following paragraphs summarize the additional key benefits of using Client for Microsoft Networks.
A high-performance system using no conventional memory. Client for Microsoft Networks uses only 32-bit, protected-mode supporting networking components and, as a file system driver, uses Windows 98 caching (VCACHE). Client for Microsoft Networks uses 32-bit versions of NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI), Microsoft Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), and the Microsoft Internetwork Packet Exchange/Sequenced Packet Exchange (IPX/SPX) – compatible protocol and network driver interface specification (NDIS) version 3.1 – compliant network adapter drivers. This protected-mode client is designed to be used in a multitasking environment, providing robust performance and using no MS-DOS conventional memory space. For information about supporting protocols and network adapter drivers, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."
Protected-mode peer resource sharing services. You can configure computers running Client for Microsoft Networks to provide peer server capabilities using File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks. For information, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."
Security and other support on Windows NT networks. You can use Windows NT servers to validate user logon and to provide pass-through security for shared resources on computers running Windows 98. For information, see Chapter 9, "Security." Also, computers running Windows 98 can recognize and use long file names on Windows NT servers, because the two operating systems use the same algorithm for long file names and aliases.
Accessing Samba Servers
By default, a Samba server is installed with the ability to answer only unencrypted passwords. By default, Windows 98 sends only encrypted passwords. To enable unencrypted passwords, add the registry entry EnablePlainTextPassword (as a DWORD), and set the value to 1 in the following registry location:
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE \System \CurrentControlSet \Services \VxD \Vnetsup
Planning for Windows 98 and MS Networking
This section summarizes some issues you should consider when using Windows 98 with Client for Microsoft Networks, whether your site uses server-based or peer-to-peer networking.
If you are currently using a peer-to-peer network but you want to take advantage of remote administrative features or user-level security, consider a small server-based network using Windows NT. For example, the Microsoft BackOffice® Small Business Server provides server software for companies with 25 or fewer personal computers. For more information about Small Business Server, see http://www.microsoft.com/sbserver/ .
Planning for Server-based MS Networks
On server-based networks, central servers running Windows NT Server or Microsoft LAN Manager version 2.x act as file and print servers and provide support for managing network logon and security. For information about the benefits of server-based networks using Windows NT Server, see "Running Windows 98 with Windows NT" later in this chapter.
The following list describes issues to consider when planning for a server-based network:
You must configure Client for Microsoft Networks as the Primary Network Logon client if you want to take advantage of user profiles for configuring or managing custom desktops on a Microsoft network, or if you want users to use system policies stored on a Windows NT server.
To share resources with computers running other Microsoft networking products, the computers must be running a common protocol.
Client for Microsoft Networks can use a LAN Manager domain controller for logon validation. However, File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks cannot use a LAN Manager domain controller for pass-through validation. To take advantage of the user-level security support on Microsoft networks, the user must have an account on a Windows NT domain.
Planning for Distributed File System
With Windows 98, Client for Microsoft Networks includes the capability to connect to a distributed file system (Dfs) tree.
The Microsoft distributed file system for Windows NT Server enables Windows NT Server administrators to build a single, integrated directory tree that spans many servers and shares in the corporate network. This directory tree presents data logically, no matter where that data is physically located. This provides the following advantages:
Users can more easily browse, search, and gain access to data.
The network administrator can change the network by moving data or adding additional resources, such as file storage, without affecting the way users see and get at data.
The network administrator can organize resources on the Dfs tree according to their purpose instead of by the server and share where they are physically located.
For example, suppose the network contains the following servers and shared network directories:
This share includes a directory called Forms, which includes the files Tulip_Form and Begonia_Form.
This share includes a directory called Inventory, which is currently empty.
This share includes two directories: Tulip_Seeds and Begonia_Seeds. Each directory includes a file named Seeds.txt.
With Dfs, Windows NT network administrators can construct the following Dfs tree:
\Retail\Forms (points to \\Retail\Accounting\Forms)
\Supply (points to \\Supply\Flower_Seeds)
\Inventory (points to \\Supply\TerraCotta\Inventory)
Note This Dfs tree contains several different junction points (places where the Dfs path points to a destination share and subdirectories). For example, \\TerraFirm\Corp\Supply is a junction point.
Figure 16.1 shows what a Windows 98 user will see. Items in bold are part of the Dfs tree.
Figure 16.1 Dfs directory structure
With Windows 98, users can now gain access to Dfs volumes. Windows 98 users can browse directory trees created using Dfs in exactly the same way they browse ordinary servers and shares. For example, the user can gain access to the file Seeds.txt in the directory Tulip_Seeds in the following location:
Users can also map one drive to the root of the Dfs tree and then transparently gain access to any resources in that part of the tree. For example, a user could map a drive to the root of the Dfs tree by using the following command:
net use Z: \\TerraFirm\Corp
The user can then gain access to the same file in the following location:
Thus, users can connect to many different servers without needing to map drives to each server.
Administrators can also create multiple Dfs directory trees and then merge them using interlinks. With interlinks, the leaf of one Dfs tree is the same as the root of another Dfs tree.
Windows 98 Dfs support is limited to server message block (SMB)–based resources, such as Windows NT servers. Any non-SMB resources will be invisible to Windows 98. For example, NetWare servers, which use NetWare Core Protocol (NCP), will be invisible. There is one exception: If the Windows NT server also uses Gateway for NetWare Networks, the Windows NT server network administrator can configure the gateway so that Windows 98 can also access NetWare servers by using NCP.
For more information about Dfs, see http://www.microsoft.com/ .
Planning for Peer-to-Peer Networks
In the peer-to-peer networking model, at least one computer must act as both a client and a server. If desired, every computer can act as both a client and a server. As a client in a peer network, the computer can access the network resources shared on another computer.
A peer network can be easy to set up for a small number of users, but it becomes slower, less secure, and harder to maintain with a large number of users. Thus, a peer network is more appropriate for small offices with about five to ten users.
Any computer running Windows 98 can act as both a client and a server on peer networks. If you have the technical expertise, you can establish the wiring for a small peer network of Windows 98 computers; otherwise, use the services of a system integrator. The following sections summarize issues either you or the system integrator need to consider for peer networking with Windows 98. For technical information about configuring and using File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."
Choosing Thinnet or Twisted Pair for Cabling
Thinnet (also called thin Ethernet or thin coax) is the simplest method of cabling ten or fewer connections on a network. It is appropriate only for Ethernet networks, not token-ring networks. Thinnet cabling uses coaxial cable with a BNC connector at each end. The cable attaches to each computer with a BNC T-connector. The major disadvantage in using thinnet cabling is that a fault in the cabling at any computer affects all computers on the network. Thinnet cabling is appropriate only for Ethernet topologies.
Unshielded twisted-pair (also called UTP or simply twisted-pair) cabling is based on standard telephone wiring technology, using connectors similar to those inserted in telephone jacks. Twisted-pair cabling is appropriate if your network has (or will have) more than ten computers, and if computers are located in low-interference environments such as an office — it is not appropriate for manufacturing or warehousing environments. You can use twisted-pair cabling for Ethernet or token-ring networks.
When cabling the network, make sure not to use twisted-pair wiring that was previously used for telephone systems or that is more than five years old, because it might not be reliable enough for network activity. For networks of more than two computers, you need additional components such as hubs and concentrators. These components can also help to isolate cabling failures. For more information about cabling, see Networking Essentials, Second Edition from Microsoft Press.
Choosing the Peer Network Components
This section summarizes issues for the following tasks:
Choosing protocols and other networking components. Microsoft NetBEUI is a fast protocol, requiring no additional configuration settings; it is a good choice for peer-to-peer networks. Microsoft TCP/IP and the IPX/SPX-compatible protocol are other alternatives for small peer-to-peer networks. You also need an NDIS 3.1 or later network adapter driver. For information about these components, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols."
Setting up security and automated backup. Share-level security is the only security option available on peer-to-peer networks. With share-level security, you create passwords to restrict access to shared resources on a peer server, so that only users with the password can gain access to the resources. For information about managing passwords in Windows 98, see Chapter 9, "Security." If you need to control access to individual files or to particular computers based on user identity, you must create a server-based network using Windows NT Server.
You can use any backup software that is compatible with Windows 98 to back up files on peer servers and other computers. To make sure data on the network is backed up automatically, use a server-based network.
Setting up peer servers. Each computer that is running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can act as a server, so that other computers can connect to it to use files or printers created on that peer server. Because a peer server can slow down if many users are requesting services from it, you might want to dedicate one computer to servicing print requests. In this configuration, users can return to work immediately after printing, while the dedicated computer can perform the printing tasks.
For optimal performance on a computer used extensively as a file or print server, use the System option in Control Panel to optimize the performance of the file system for network server activities. For information, see Chapter 26, "Performance Tuning."
Managing a peer network. Most of the remote administration features in Windows 98 rely on user-level security, which requires a server running Windows NT or NetWare to provide pass-through authentication of users for access to resources on remote computers. Therefore, on peer-to-peer networks, you cannot use Microsoft Remote Registry Services or any administrative features that require remote access to the registry. However, you can use Net Watcher to manage the file system on remote computers, as described in Chapter 23, "System and Remote Administration Tools."
Installing Client for MS Networks
In Windows 98, Client for Microsoft Networks provides the redirector (Vredir.vxd) to support all Microsoft networking products that use the SMB protocol. This includes support for connecting computers running Windows 98, LAN Manager, Windows NT, Windows for Workgroups, and Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS networking software for personal computers running MS-DOS.
Because Windows 98 network redirectors are implemented as file system drivers, Client for Microsoft Networks provides mechanisms for locating, opening, reading, writing, and deleting files; submitting print requests; and making available such application services as named pipes and mailslots.
If a previous Microsoft network client is running when Windows 98 Setup is started, Client for Microsoft Networks automatically replaces the previous client. Depending on your configuration, Windows 98 Setup might add Client for Microsoft Networks. (For more information, see Chapter 14, "Introduction to Networking Configuration.") You can also add Client for Microsoft Networks after you add network hardware to the computer.
To install Client for Microsoft Networks
In Control Panel, double-click Network, and then click Add.
In the Select Network Component Type dialog box, double-click Client.
In the Select Network Client dialog box, click Microsoft in the Manufacturers list, and then click Client for Microsoft Networks in the Network Clients list. Click OK.
Configuring Client for MS Networks
To configure Client for Microsoft Networks, you need to consider the following:
Will Client for Microsoft Networks be the Primary Network Logon client?
Will users log on to a Windows NT domain, a single Windows NT computer, or a LAN Manager domain?
Will persistent connections to network drives be restored when the user logs on to Windows 98 or only if the resource is used?
This section describes these options and how to configure the network client.
Note On a clean installation, Windows 98 does not configure Client for Microsoft Networks to log on to a Windows NT domain. If you want Client for Microsoft Networks to log on to a Windows NT domain, follow the procedure in "Configuring Logon and Reconnection Options," later in this chapter.
Configuring the Primary Client for Network Logon
If you set Client for Microsoft Networks as the Primary Network Logon, the computer downloads system policies and user profiles from the Windows-based network, and the first logon prompt that appears is for the Windows NT network. Also, if more than one network client is installed, the last logon script is run from Windows NT (or LAN Manager, depending on your network).
To make Client for Microsoft Networks the Primary Network Logon client
In Control Panel, double-click Network.
In the Primary Network Logon box, click Client for Microsoft Networks. Click OK.
Configuring Logon and Reconnection Options
In the Network option in Control Panel, you can specify logon validation and resource connection options. If you enable logon validation, Windows 98 automatically attempts to validate the user by checking the specified domain. You must enable this option if you want to gain access to user profiles and system policies on a Windows NT domain. If logon validation is required on your network but is not enabled on your computer, you might not have access to most network resources. If logon validation is enabled and you do not provide the correct password, you might not have access to network resources.
Note For logon validation to work, the user's user name and password must be specified in a user account on the specified Windows NT domain, LAN Manager domain, or Windows NT computer.
You can also set logon validation by using system policies. With system policies, you can prevent the user from booting Windows 98 until the user is validated by either a Windows NT server or a NetWare server. For more information, see Chapter 8, "System Policies."
Note Windows 98 does not support using a LAN Manager domain controller as a pass-through security provider, but LAN Manager can provide logon validation.
To enable logon validation for Client for Microsoft Networks
In Control Panel, double-click Network, and then double-click Client for Microsoft Networks in the list of network components.
Select the Log on to Windows NT domain check box if you want to log on to a Microsoft Windows NT or LAN Manager domain automatically when starting Windows 98.
If you do not want to log on to a domain when starting Windows 98, make sure this check box is cleared.
If you select logon validation, you can also specify the domain to be used for validation by typing a name in the Windows NT Domain box.
You can specify a Windows NT or LAN Manager domain name or the name of a Windows NT computer (version 3.1 or later) where you have a user account.
You can also specify whether Windows 98 should restore and verify each persistent connection at system startup.
To configure how persistent connections are restored
In Control Panel, double-click Network, and then double-click Client for Microsoft Networks in the list of network components.
To map the drive letters when you log on without actually establishing a session for each persistent network connection, in the Network logon options area, click Quick logon.
– Or –
To have Windows 98 verify each persistent network connection at startup by establishing a session for each persistent connection, click Logon and restore network connections.
With Quick logon, Windows 98 initializes data structures for mapping local drives and local printer ports to network resources, but Windows 98 does not attach to the network resource until the user tries to get access to the resources.
When you use Quick logon (the default), Windows 98 starts faster than if the actual connections are made during startup. However, the first time you try to access a network drive, it will take a little longer for the contents of that drive to appear.
Note Quick logon requires password caching to function properly. If system policies are used to disable password caching, users cannot use Quick logon successfully with peer servers configured with share-level security.
Running Windows 98 in a Mixed MS Environment
This section presents some technical information to consider if your network includes computers running Windows NT or earlier versions of Microsoft networking products in addition to computers running Windows 98.
Running Windows 98 with Windows NT
Microsoft Windows NT Server networks use a domain structure and provide both client/server and peer networking with user-level security. You can run Windows 98 on a Windows NT network.
For a description of the support for running logon scripts from Windows NT Server, see Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing." For information about installing Windows 98 as a dual-boot operating system with Windows NT, see Chapter 5, "Setup Technical Discussion."
Running Windows 98 in a Mixed Environment with Windows NT
In Windows 98, computers are grouped logically in workgroups, where each computer in the workgroup maintains its own security system for validating local user logon and access to resources. Computers in workgroups do not share security with other computers, and they do not rely on other computers to provide security. On Windows NT–based networks, computers can be grouped into domains, which allow multiple servers and workstations to be grouped for unified administration. With Windows NT domains, centralized user accounts are used to validate user logon and access to resources. Thus, if you have five users on five computers, you can configure your network so you need to create and maintain only five user accounts.
Windows 98 and Windows NT use the same workgroup model for browsing network resources, so computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can appear in the same workgroup as computers running Windows NT. A computer running Windows NT will always be the master browse server (the computer that maintains the list of servers in a workgroup), but Windows 98 – based computers might act as backup browse servers.
Users running Client for Microsoft Networks can gain access to the shared resources on a computer running Windows NT if both computers are using a common protocol. For a user running Windows 98 to get to Windows NT resources, the user must have been granted access to those resources and must have a valid user name and password. For a user running Windows NT to get to Windows 98 resources protected with share-level security, the user does not need to have been granted explicit access to the resource and needs only to know the password for the resource. For a user running Windows NT to get to Windows 98 resources protected with user-level security, the user must have been granted explicit access to those resources and must have a valid user name and password.
Benefits of Using Windows 98 with Windows NT Server
The Microsoft Windows NT Server operating system is the high-end member of the family of Microsoft Windows operating systems, providing a powerful, reliable, and scalable operating system to support the demands of client/server computing for workstations running Windows 98 or other operating systems.
Windows NT Server provides the ideal platform for the server backbone in a mixed-network environment. It is especially versatile and powerful for enterprise networks made up of LANs that use a variety of network types and require dial-in support for network access. Also, on a peer-to-peer network on which the computers are running Client for Microsoft Networks, you can add Windows NT to the network without changing the networking software on the existing computers.
Windows NT Server is designed to support complex business applications and administrative requirements. The following list summarizes important features.
Networking and workgroup support. Windows NT Server provides built-in file and printer sharing capabilities for workgroup computing, and an open network system interface that includes built-in support for IPX/SPX, TCP/IP, NetBEUI, and other protocols. Windows NT Server also provides administrative tools for controlling network services, auditing system events, changing hardware configuration and system performance, managing and backing up disks, and so on. Additionally, Windows NT provides robust support for server-based and client/server applications.
Interoperability. Windows NT Server is compatible with such networks as Windows 98, Novell NetWare, Banyan, UNIX, LAN Manager 2.x, and Microsoft Windows for Workgroups. Windows NT Server can add value to your current network environment without disruption. Even though networks and interoperability are complicated, a Windows NT network is easy to use and reliable, with automatic configuration provided wherever possible and remote administration available for most administration tasks.
A single network logon. With Windows 98 with Windows NT Server, users can gain access to network resources, including client/server applications, using one user account and one password per user.
Centralized management of user accounts. Using Windows 98 with Windows NT Server, network administrators can work from a single computer across divisions, departments, and workgroups.
Advanced data-protection features. Using Windows NT Server, network administrators can take advantage of such features as disk mirroring, disk striping with parity (RAID 5), and uninterruptible power supply support.
Remote Access Service (RAS). Users can gain access to network resources even when they are off-site, as when traveling or working at home. They can dial in over asynchronous telephone lines or Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) lines to reach the network from computers running Windows 98, MS-DOS, Windows for Workgroups, or Windows NT operating systems. Using RAS point-to-point tunneling protocol (PPTP), they can also dial an Internet Service Provider (ISP) and make a secure connection to their network over the Internet. Windows NT RAS also supports X.25 networks.
Access to Apple Macintosh resources. When Services for Apple Macintosh is installed on a Windows NT server, Macintoshes and computers running Windows 98 can work together to share files, printers, and client/server applications. Macintosh users can gain access to resources on a computer running Windows NT Server.
Client Access Licenses for Windows NT Server
Microsoft licenses Windows NT Server and Windows NT Workstation separately, allowing you to purchase only the components you need to build a network solution for your organization.
To get access to Windows NT Server from Windows 98 – based workstations, you need three types of licenses:
Your Windows 98 license, required to run Windows 98.
One Server License for Microsoft Windows NT Server for each Windows NT Server on the network.
One Client Access License for Windows NT Server for each computer running Windows 98 or other operating systems that will access the Windows NT file, print, and remote access services.
Microsoft offers two licensing options for Windows NT Server:
In Per Seat licensing, the Client Access License applies to a specific workstation ("seat"). Using this alternative, an unlimited number of computers or workstations running Windows 98 or other operating systems can access Windows NT Server, provided each is licensed with a Client Access License. After a workstation has been licensed, it has permission to access all Windows NT Server products installed throughout your organization.
A Client Access License is required whether you use client software supplied by Microsoft or software from another vendor. In particular, for each computer running Windows 98, Windows for Workgroups, Windows NT Workstation, or any client software that Windows NT Server supports, a separate Client Access License is required.
In Per Server licensing, each Client Access License is assigned to a particular server and allows one connection to that server for basic network services. Under this option, you designate during setup the number of licenses that apply to this server.
You can convert a Per Server License to a Per Seat License at no cost and without notifying Microsoft. You cannot, however, switch from a Per Seat option to a Per Server option. Also, you are not required to license all your servers using the same option.
Note It is a violation of the terms of the Server License to use Windows NT Server without an appropriate number of Client Access Licenses. For more information, see your Server License.
Client Access Licenses are available in single-client and 20-client configurations and in volume quantities through the Microsoft Select licensing program. For more information, contact your Microsoft reseller. If you have questions, in the United States, contact the Microsoft Sales Information Center at (800) 426-9400. In Canada, contact the Microsoft Canada Sales Information Centre at (800) 563-9048. For other locations, contact your local Microsoft subsidiary.
Running Windows 98 with LAN Manager
A workgroup in Windows 98 is analogous to a LAN Manager domain, in that it is a logical grouping of workstations. However, a workgroup in Windows 98 does not share any of the advanced security features offered as part of a LAN Manager domain. Windows 98 does not support using a LAN Manager domain controller as a security provider, so only share-level security can be used for computers running Windows 98 on LAN Manager networks. (User-level security requires a Windows NT domain.)
To ensure that computers running Windows 98 can browse for LAN Manager servers, make sure that at least one computer running Client for Microsoft Networks sets its workgroup name to the LAN Manager domain name. After a computer running Windows 98 becomes a member of the LAN Manager domain, it can distribute the names of LAN Manager servers in that domain to other computers running Windows 98 on the network. The configuration must be duplicated for each LAN Manager domain.
To ensure that LAN Manager workstations can see and access resources on computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks
Make sure that all the computers are using a common protocol.
Make sure that users running LAN Manager clients have been granted access to the resources on the computers running Windows 98.
Set the value of the LM Announce property to Yes on each computer running Windows 98 with file and printer sharing services, as described in "Using File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks" in Chapter 18, "Logon, Browsing, and Resource Sharing."
The LM Announce setting ensures that the computer running Windows 98 peer resource sharing services announces its presence to LAN Manager workstations and servers. By default, the LM Announce property is set to No to reduce broadcast traffic on the network.
Note IBM OS/2 LAN Server supports a domain model and is equivalent to LAN Manager for interoperating with Windows 98. Just as with Windows for Workgroups, the Client for Microsoft Networks in Windows 98 does not support LAN Server aliases.
Running Windows 98 with Windows for Workgroups
Windows 98 uses the same workgroup model as Windows for Workgroups. Therefore, computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can be seen by computers running Windows for Workgroups. A computer running Windows NT or Windows 98 will always be the master browse server. For a computer running Windows 98 and Windows for Workgroups to communicate, both computers must be running a common protocol.
Shared resources on Windows for Workgroups computers are password-protected. Therefore, a user running Client for Microsoft Networks can gain access to shared resources on a computer running Windows for Workgroups only if that user knows the password.
To get to Windows 98 resources protected with user-level security, a user running Windows for Workgroups must have been granted access to those resources and must have a valid user name and password. To get to Windows 98 resources protected with share-level security, this same user does not need to have been granted explicit access to the resource and needs only to know the password for the resource.
Running Windows 98 with Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS
Computers running File and Printer Sharing for Microsoft Networks can appear in the same workgroup as a computer running the peer server supported in Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS. For a list of peer servers to be available in the workgroup, there must be at least one computer in the workgroup configured as the master browse server that is running Windows 98, Windows 95, Windows for Workgroups, or Windows NT. A computer running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS cannot be a master browse server.
Users running Client for Microsoft Networks can gain access to the shared resources on a computer running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS if both computers are using a common protocol and if the user knows the password for the resource.
To get to Windows 98 resources protected with user-level security, a user running Workgroup Add-on for MS-DOS must have been granted access to those resources and must have a valid user name and password. To get to Windows 98 resources protected with share-level security, this same user does not need to have been granted explicit access to the resource and needs only to know the password for the resource. In both cases, both computers must be running a common protocol.
Working with Protocol.ini: Real-Mode Network Initialization File
For real-mode networking, Windows 98 uses a file called Protocol.ini in the Windows directory to determine the parameters for the protocol and network adapter drivers. Setup creates and modifies Protocol.ini from information in INF files if any real-mode networking components, such as NDIS version 2 adapter drivers, are installed.
Caution Never edit Protocol.ini manually. Actual settings are stored in the registry, and changes in Protocol.ini will be overwritten automatically. Instead, always use the Network option in Control Panel and the setup software for your network hardware to configure network settings.
The information presented in this section is for troubleshooting purposes only.
Protocol.ini also contains network adapter configuration information, such as the I/O address, direct memory access (DMA), and interrupt requests (IRQs). The Protocol.ini file contains sections for [protman$] and separate sections for each network adapter and network protocol.
Configuring Adapters with Real-Mode Networking
When multiple hardware adapters are used on a computer, some entries in Protocol.ini, such as interrupt settings and shared memory addresses, might need adjustments to avoid hardware conflicts. Because Windows 98 Setup cannot anticipate every possible conflict, watch for error messages when you start the computer in real-mode networking.
For example, if both a network adapter and a video controller adapter try to use the same memory address, you must adjust one of the adapters to a different address by using either the setup software for the adapter or the switches on the adapter (or both, which is the typical case). Also, the Protocol.ini entries must agree with the jumper setting on each adapter.
[Protman] section. This section provides the settings for the system component that manages protocols. The following list explains the format for this section.
Defines the driver name for the component that manages protocols.
Determines the order in which incoming frames are processed.
The following shows an example of entries in this section for a computer configured with multiple NDIS protocols:
[protman$] priority=ndishlp$ DriverName=protman$
[ Netcard ] section. This section lists the set of parameters for an NDIS network adapter. A [netcard] section is present for each network adapter configured in the computer, and the specific entries present in this section vary depending on the network adapter installed. The following is an example of entries in this section for an Intel EtherExpress 16 or 16TP adapter:
[EXP16$] DriverName=EXP16$ transceiver=Twisted-Pair (TPE) iochrdy=Late irq=5 ioaddress=0x300
[ Protocol ] section. This section defines the settings used by a network protocol. A [protocol] section is present for each network transport protocol installed on the computer, and the specific entries present in this section vary depending on the protocol installed. The following list explains the format for entries common to each configured protocol.
Indicates the network adapter drivers to which each transport protocol binds. The netcard name for the network adapter driver must appear in the bindings= entry for at least one of the protocol drivers. The entry can specify one or more [netcard] sections (separated by commas).
For NetBIOS protocols only, defines the first LANA number the protocol is to accept.
The following is an example of entries in this section for an IPX/SPX-compatible protocol and Microsoft NetBEUI:
[nwlink$] DriverName=nwlink$ Frame_Type=4 cachesize=0 Bindings=EXP16$ [NETBEUI$] DriverName=NETBEUI$ Lanabase=0 sessions=10 ncbs=12 Bindings=EXP16$
Troubleshooting Windows 98 on MS Networks
For information about troubleshooting Windows 98 on Microsoft networks, see the chapter describing the aspect of your network setup that you need to troubleshoot. For information about troubleshooting basic network configuration issues, see Chapter 14, "Introduction to Networking Configuration." For information about troubleshooting network adapter drivers and network protocols, see Chapter 15, "Network Adapters and Protocols." For information about troubleshooting problems with Windows NT Server, see the Microsoft Windows NT Server Networking Guide in the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit (for Windows NT version 4.0).
For more information about
See this resource
Basic information about networks and network adapters
Networking Essentials, Second Edition
Advanced networking information, information about networking with Windows NT Server, and information about deploying large networks
Microsoft Windows NT Server Networking Guide in the Microsoft Windows NT Server Resource Kit (for Windows NT version 4.0)