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Windows Server 2003 Glossary - C

Updated: March 7, 2008

Applies To: Windows Server 2000, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2003 R2, Windows Server 2003 with SP1, Windows Server 2003 with SP2

For more Windows Server terms, see the Windows Server 2008 Glossary.

Glossary - C

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See other term: certification authority (CA)  


A special memory subsystem in which frequently used data values are duplicated for quick access.

See also: cache file   file system cache   

cache file

A file used by DNS servers and clients to store responses to DNS queries. For Windows DNS servers, the cache file is named Cache.dns by default.

See also: authoritative   cache   DNS client   DNS server   Domain Name System (DNS)   


The process of temporarily storing recently accessed information in a special memory subsystem for quicker access.

See also: cache   caching resolver   

caching resolver

A program that extracts information from DNS servers in response to client requests.

See also: cache   cache file   caching   DNS server   

caching-only server

A DNS sever that does not host any DNS zones but that performs name resolution and stores the results in its cache.

See also: caching   DNS server   DNS zone   name resolution   

Callback Control Protocol (CBCP)

The Network Control Protocol that negotiates the use of callback over PPP links.

See also: Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)   

callback number

The number that a remote access server uses to call back a user. This number can be preset by the administrator or specified by the user at the time of each call, depending on how the administrator configures the user`s callback options. The callback number should be the number of the phone line to which the user`s modem is connected.

See also: preset-to callback   remote access server   set-by-caller callback   

callback security

A form of network security in which a remote access server calls a user back at a preset number after the user has made an initial connection and has been authenticated.

See also: preset-to callback   remote access server   

called subscriber ID (CSID) string

A string that specifies the called subscriber ID transmitted by the receiving fax machine when receiving an inbound fax. This string is usually a combination of the fax or telephone number and the name of the business. It is often the same as the transmitter subscriber ID.

See also: string   transmitting station ID (TSID) string   

canonical (CNAME) resource record

A resource record used to map an alternate alias name to a primary canonical DNS domain name used in the zone.

See also: resource record (RR)   

canonical name

An object`s distinguished name presented with the root first and without the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) attribute tags (such as: CN=, DC=). The segments of the name are delimited with forward slashes (/). For example, CN=MyDocuments,OU=MyOU,DC=Microsoft,DC=Com is presented as in canonical form.

See also: distinguished name   Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)   


To assign a port to a printer. Documents that you print are sent to the printer through the captured port. For Network Monitor, the process by which frames are copied.

See also: frame   

capture password

A password that allows the user to capture statistics from the network and to display captured data.

See also: display password   password   

capture trigger

A set of conditions that, when met, stop the capture or execute a program or command file to perform another type of action related to the capture.


A 32-bit PC Card.

cartridge font

A font contained in a plug-in cartridge and used to add fonts to laser, ink-jet, or high-end dot-matrix printers. Cartridge fonts are distinguished both from internal fonts, which are contained in read-only memory (ROM) in the printer and are always available, and from downloadable (soft) fonts, which reside on disk and which can be sent to the printer as needed.

See also: downloadable fonts   font   font cartridge   read-only memory (ROM)   

cascading hubs

A network configuration in which hubs are connected to other hubs.

See also: hub   


For Indexing Service, a collection of all index information and stored properties for a particular group of file system directories. By default, Indexing Service indexes the System and Web catalogs on your hard drive.

See also: Indexing Service   property   


See other term: Callback Control Protocol (CBCP)  


See other term: constant bit rate (CBR)  



See other term: Compact Disc File System (CDFS)  


A digital document that is commonly used for authentication and to help secure information on a network. A certificate binds a public key to an entity that holds the corresponding private key. Certificates are digitally signed by the certification authority that issues them, and they can be issued for a user, a computer, or a service.

certificate revocation list (CRL)

A document maintained and published by a certification authority that lists certificates that have been revoked.

See also: certification authority (CA)   

Certificate Services

A software service that issues certificates for a particular certification authority (CA). It provides customizable services for issuing and managing certificates for the enterprise. Certificates can be used to provide authentication support, including secure e-mail, Web-based authentication, and smart-card authentication.

See also: authentication   certification authority (CA)   Internet Authentication Service (IAS)   service   

certificate store

A permanent storage where certificates, certificate revocation lists, and certificate trust lists are stored.

See also: certificate revocation list (CRL)   certificate trust list (CTL)   

certificate template

A Windows construct that specifies the format and content of certificates based on their intended usage. When requesting a certificate from a Windows enterprise certification authority (CA), certificate requestors can select from a variety of certificate types that are based on certificate templates.

See also: certification authority (CA)   

certificate trust list (CTL)

A signed list of root certification authority certificates that an administrator considers reputable for designated purposes, such as client authentication or secure e-mail.

See also: certification authority (CA)   root certificate   

certification authority (CA)

An entity responsible for establishing and vouching for the authenticity of public keys belonging to subjects (usually users or computers) or other certification authorities. Activities of a certification authority can include binding public keys to distinguished names through signed certificates, managing certificate serial numbers, and certificate revocation.

See also: public key   root certification authority   

certification hierarchy

A model of trust for certificates in which certification paths are created by means of the establishment of parent-child relationships between certification authorities.

See also: certification authority (CA)   certification path   

certification path

An unbroken chain of trust, consisting of certificates from trusted certification authorities, from a specific certificate to the root certification authority in a certification hierarchy.

See also: certification authority (CA)   certification hierarchy   public key   

Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP)

A challenge-response authentication protocol for Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connections described in RFC 1994. It uses the industry-standard MD5 hashing algorithm to hash the combination of a challenge string issued by the authenticating server and the user`s password in the response.

See also: MD5   message digest   Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)   

change journal

A feature that tracks changes to NTFS volumes, including additions, deletions, and modifications. The change journal exists on the volume as a sparse file.

See also: NTFS file system   sparse file   volume   


A path or link through which noncontrol information passes between two devices. A single Basic Rate Interface (BRI) connection, for example, has one physical connection but two channels for exchanging information between devices. This is often called a bearer channel, implying a channel that carries information. On the Internet, a Web site designed to deliver content from the Internet to your computer, similar to subscribing to a favorite Web site.

See also: active content   B-channel   D-channel   

character mode

A display mode in which the monitor can display letters, numbers, and other text characters, but no graphical images or character formatting (italics, superscript, and so on).

See also: graphics mode   

child domain

For DNS and Active Directory, a domain located in the namespace tree directly beneath another domain (the parent domain). For example, would be a child domain of the parent domain Also known as a subdomain.

See also: Active Directory   domain   Domain Name System (DNS)   parent domain   

child object

An object that resides in another object. A child object implies relation. For example, a file is a child object that resides in a folder, which is the parent object.

See also: object   parent object   


The Macintosh desk accessory with which users select the network server and printers they want to use.

Chooser Pack

A collection of files, some of which contain PostScript information. When a Macintosh computer sends a print job to a PostScript printer, the printer uses a Chooser Pack to interpret PostScript commands in the print job.

See also: PostScript   PostScript printer   


The particular algorithm used to transform a readable message (called plaintext or cleartext) into an unreadable, scrambled, or hidden message (called ciphertext).

circuit switching

A technology in which a connection is established by closing a switch, for example, by dialing a telephone. This creates a circuit in which all the information transmitted over the connection follows the same route to the destination. The circuit is dedicated to the connection until it is closed.


A statement that a server makes (for example, name, identity, key, group, privilege, or capability) about a client.

claim mapping

The act of mapping, removing or filtering, or passing claims between various claim sets.

claims-aware application

A Microsoft ASP .NET application that performs authorization based on the claims that are present in an Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) security token.


A category of objects that share a common set of characteristics. Each object in the directory is an instance of one or more classes in the schema.

See also: object   schema   

Class A IP address

A unicast IP address that ranges from through The first octet indicates the network, and the last three octets indicate the host on the network. Class-based IP addressing has been superceded by Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR).

See also: Class B IP address   Class C IP address   Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)   IP address   

Class B IP address

A unicast IP address that ranges from through The first two octets indicate the network, and the last two octets indicate the host on the network. Class-based IP addressing has been superceded by Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR).

See also: Class A IP address   Class C IP address   Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)   IP address   

Class C affinity

Specifies that Network Load Balancing direct multiple requests from the same TCP/IP Class C address range to the same cluster host.

See also: affinity   Network Load Balancing   single affinity   

Class C IP address

A unicast IP address that ranges from to The first three octets indicate the network, and the last octet indicates the host on the network. Network Load Balancing provides optional session support for Class C IP addresses (in addition to support for single IP addresses) to accommodate clients that make use of multiple proxy servers at the client site. Class-based IP addressing has been superceded by Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR).

See also: Class A IP address   Class B IP address   Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)   IP address   Network Load Balancing   proxy server   

classical IP over ATM (CLIP)

A proposed Internet standard, described in RFC 2225, that allows Internet Protocol (IP) communication directly on the asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) layer, bypassing an additional protocol (such as Ethernet or Token Ring) in the protocol stack.

See also: asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)   Internet Protocol (IP)   

Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR)

An IP address and routing management method that allocates IP addresses in a way that reduces the number of routes stored on any individual router, while also increasing the number of available IP addresses. CIDR replaces class-based IP address allocation.

See also: IP address   router   


To turn off an option by removing the X or check mark from a check box. You clear a check box by clicking it, or by selecting it and then pressing the SPACEBAR.


See other term: plaintext  

cleartext passwords

Passwords that are not scrambled, thus making them more susceptible to network sniffers.

See also: password   plaintext   


Any computer or program connecting to, or requesting the services of, another computer or program.

See also: server   

client access

The ability of client computers to connect to a server or resource, for example, a file on a server or a cluster resource.

See also: client   cluster   resource   server   

client account partner discovery Web page

The Web page that is used to interact with a user to determine which account partner the user belongs to when Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) cannot automatically determine which of the account partners should authenticate the user.

client application

A Windows-based application that can display and store linked or embedded objects. For distributed applications, the application that imitates a request to a server application.

See also: server application   

client authentication

A method of authentication by which the client in a client-server communication proves its identity to the server.

See also: authentication   client   identity   server   

client failback

The process in which a namespace client, after failing over to another target, fails back to the previous target.

client failover

The process in which a namespace client attempts to access subsequent targets in a referral if the first target is (or becomes) unavailable.

client logoff Web page

When Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) performs a logoff operation, a Web page that is executed to provide visual feedback to the user that the logoff has occurred.

client logon Web page

When Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) collects client credentials, a Web page that is executed to perform the user interaction. The client logon Web page may use any necessary business logic to determine the type of credentials to collect.

client request

A service request from a client computer to a server computer or a cluster of server computers.

See also: client   server   

Client Service for NetWare

A service included that allows clients to make direct connections to resources on computers running NetWare 2.x, 3.x, 4.x, or 5.x server software by using the Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) protocol only. This service is included with Windows XP Professional and the Windows Server 2003 family.

See also: Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)   service   


See other term: classical IP over ATM (CLIP)  

ClipBook Server

A system service that supports ClipBook Viewer, which allows pages to be seen by remote ClipBooks.


In data storage, the smallest amount of disk space that can be allocated to hold a file. All file systems used by Windows organize hard disks based on clusters, which consist of one or more contiguous sectors. The smaller the cluster size, the more efficiently a disk stores information. If no cluster size is specified during formatting, Windows picks defaults based on the size of the volume. These defaults are selected to reduce the amount of space that is lost and the amount of fragmentation on the volume. Also called an allocation unit. In computer networking, a group of independent computers that work together to provide a common set of services and present a single-system image to clients. The use of a cluster enhances the availability of the services and the scalability and manageability of the operating system that provides the services.

See also: availability   client   file system   scalability   volume   

cluster adapter

The adapter that, when using multiple network adapters in each host of a Network Load Balancing cluster, handles the network traffic for cluster operations (the traffic for all hosts in the cluster). This adapter is programmed with the host`s cluster IP address.

See also: cluster   dedicated adapter   host   IP address   Network Load Balancing   

Cluster Administrator

An application that configures a cluster and its nodes, groups, and resources. Cluster Administrator can run on any member of the trusted domain regardless of whether the computer is a cluster node.

See also: cluster   Cluster.exe   node   server cluster   

Cluster Administrator extension

A software component that implements the Cluster Administrator extension application programming interface (API) for allowing Cluster Administrator to configure a new resource type.

See also: application programming interface (API)   cluster   Cluster Administrator   

Cluster API

A collection of functions that are implemented by the cluster software and used by a cluster-aware client or server application, a cluster management application, or a Resource DLL. The Cluster API is used to manage the cluster, cluster objects, and the cluster database.

See also: cluster   Resource DLL   server cluster   

cluster full Internet name

A full Internet name for the Network Load Balancing cluster (for example, This name is used for the cluster as a whole and should be the same for all hosts in the cluster.

See also: affinity   Network Load Balancing   single affinity   

cluster IP address

The Network Load Balancing cluster`s IP address in standard Internet dotted notation (for example, w.x.y.z). The address is a virtual IP address used to address the cluster as a whole, and it should be the IP address that maps to the full Internet name that you specify for the cluster. In a Network Load Balancing cluster, this address must be set identically for all hosts in the cluster.

See also: Network Load Balancing   Network Load Balancing cluster   

cluster log

An optionally enabled trace record of Cluster service events on a node. Not synonymous with quorum log.

See also: cluster   node   quorum log   

cluster network address

The network (media access control) address for the network adapter that is to be used for handling client-to-cluster traffic in a Network Load Balancing cluster.

See also: Network Load Balancing   Network Load Balancing cluster   

Cluster service

The essential software component that controls all aspects of server cluster operation and manages the cluster database. Each node in a server cluster runs one instance of the Cluster service.

See also: cluster   node   server cluster   

cluster storage

Storage where one or more attached disks hold data used either by server applications running on the cluster or by applications for managing the cluster. Each disk on the cluster storage is owned by only one node of the cluster. The ownership of disks moves from one node to another when the disk group fails over or moves to the other node.

See also: cluster   failover   node   


An alternative to using Cluster Administrator to administer clusters from the command prompt. You can also call Cluster.exe from command scripts to automate many cluster administration tasks.

See also: cluster   Cluster Administrator   

cluster-aware application

An application that can run on a cluster node and that can be managed as a cluster resource. Cluster-aware applications use the Cluster API to receive status and notification information from the server cluster.

See also: cluster   Cluster API   cluster-unaware application   server cluster   

cluster-unaware application

An application that can run on a cluster node and be managed as a cluster resource but that does not support the Cluster API.

See also: cluster   Cluster API   cluster-aware application   node   

CMYK color space

Multidimensional color space consisting of the cyan, magenta, yellow, and black intensities that make up a given color. Commercial color printing devices generally use this system of four-color process inks.

See also: color management   color space   

cn (Common-Name)

The descriptive relative distinguished name for the schema object.

See also: distinguished name   schema   

code page

A means of providing support for character sets and keyboard layouts for different countries or regions. A code page is a table that relates the binary character codes used by a program to keys on the keyboard or to characters on the display.


Hardware that can convert audio or video signals between analog and digital forms (coder/decoder), hardware or software that can compress and uncompress audio or video data (compression/decompression), or the combination of coder/decoder and compression/decompression. Generally, a codec compresses uncompressed digital data so that the data uses less memory.

color gamut

The particular range of colors that a device is able to produce. A device such as a scanner, monitor, or printer can produce a unique range of colors, which is determined by the characteristics of the device itself.

See also: color profile   rendering intent   

color management

Process of producing accurate, consistent color among a variety of input and output devices. A color management system (CMS) maps colors between devices such as scanners, monitors, and printers; transforms colors from one color space to another (for example, RGB to CMYK); and provides accurate on-screen or print previews.

See also: CMYK color space   RGB color space   

color profile

A profile that contains the data needed for translating the values of a color gamut. This data includes information about color, hue, saturation, and brightness.

See also: color gamut   hue   saturation   

color space

A set of three values that defines how a color can be represented on computer devices such as monitors, scanners, and printers. For example, in the LAB color space, the terms luminance or whiteness (L), redness-greenness (A), and yellowness-blueness (B) are used; in the HVC system, the terms are hue (H), value (V), and chroma (C). Color space refers to the three-dimensional space that is defined by the respective values, such as L, A, and B.

See also: CMYK color space   color space   RGB color space   


See other term: Component Object Model (COM)

COM Internet Services Proxy

Software that supports distributed applications that use Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) to communicate through Internet Information Services (IIS).

See also: Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)   Internet Information Services (IIS)   

Command Prompt window

A window displayed on the desktop used to interface with the MS-DOS operating system. MS-DOS commands are typed at an entry point identified by a blinking cursor.

See also: MS-DOS (Microsoft Disk Operating System)   

common groups

Groups that appear in the program list on the Start menu for all users who log on to the computer. Only administrators can create or change common groups.

See also: group   

communication port

A port on a computer that allows asynchronous communication of one byte at a time. Also called a serial port.

See also: asynchronous communication   serial port   

communication settings

Operating parameters, such as bits per second (bps) and modem type, that apply to serial ports on a computer.

See also: bits per second (bps)   modem (modulator/demodulator)   serial port   

community name

A name that identifies groups of Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) hosts. This name is placed in SNMP messages that are sent between SNMP-managed devices such as servers running Windows Server 2003 and SNMP management stations. Typically, all hosts belong to Public, which is the standard name for a common community of all SNMP hosts.

See also: host   Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)   trap   

Compact Disc File System (CDFS)

A 32-bit protected-mode file system that controls access to the contents of CD-ROM drives.

Component Object Model (COM)

An object-based programming model designed to promote software interoperability; it allows two or more applications or components to easily cooperate with one another, even if they were written by different vendors, at different times, in different programming languages, or if they are running on different computers running different operating systems. OLE technology and ActiveX are both built on top of COM.

See also: ActiveX   OLE   

Compression Control Protocol (CCP)

A protocol used in the negotiation process in a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) connection. CCP is one type of Network Control Protocol. Network Control Protocols are used to establish and configure different network protocol parameters for Internet Protocol (IP), Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX), and NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI).

See also: Internet Protocol (IP)   Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX)   NetBIOS Extended User Interface (NetBEUI)   Network Control Protocol   Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)   

computer account

An account that is stored in Active Directory and that uniquely identifies a computer in a domain. A computer account uses the same name as the computer joining the domain.

See also: Active Directory   domain   

Computer Browser service

A service that maintains an up-to-date list of computers that share resources on your network and that supplies the list to programs that request it. The Computer Browser service is used to view a list of available network resources.

See also: resource   service   

Computer Management

A component you can use to view and control many aspects of the computer configuration. Computer Management combines several administration utilities into a single console tree, providing easy access to a local or remote computer`s administrative properties and tools.

See also: console tree   

computer name

A unique name of up to 15 uppercase characters that identifies a computer to the network. The name cannot be the same as any other computer or domain name in the network.

See also: domain name   

computer quota

For Message Queuing, the storage size limit for messages on a computer, based on the total size of the messages. When a computer quota is reached, Message Queuing can no longer send messages to that computer until one or more messages are removed from queues. Message Queuing enforces the computer quota before it enforces the queue quota on a computer.

See also: Message Queuing   queue quota   

computer-telephony integration (CTI)

The practice of using a computer to control one or more telephone and communications functions.

configuration set

For Active Directory Application Mode (ADAM), a set of ADAM instances that share and replicate to a common schema partition and a common configuration partition.

conflict detection

For DHCP, an optional server-side mechanism for detecting if a scope IP address is in use on the network. When enabled, the DHCP server will ping an address first before offering that address to clients, and then it will briefly await a response. If the pinged address responds, a conflict is registered and that address is not offered to clients obtaining a lease from the server.

See also: DHCP server   Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)   lease   ping   scope   


To assign a drive letter, port, or computer name to a shared resource so that you can use it.

See also: shared resource   

connected user

A user who has access to a computer or a resource across the network.

See also: resource   

connected, authenticating user

A user's status when a telephone connection has been established but authentication has not yet taken place. The user may be trying to prove security clearance, or the system may be idle. If this condition occurs, followed by the Waiting for Call phase, then the user was unable to provide a correct user name or password. If this phase is repeated, followed by the Waiting for Call phase, an unauthorized attempt to access the network may be under way.

See also: authentication   Waiting for Call   


For DFS Replication, a one-way replication path between two members of a replication group.

connection object

An Active Directory object that represents a replication connection from one domain controller to another. The connection object is a child of the replication destinations NTDS Settings object and identifies the replication source server, contains a replication schedule, and specifies a replication transport. Connection objects are created automatically by the Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC), but they can also be created manually. Automatically generated connections must not be modified by the user unless they are first converted into manual connections.

See also: Active Directory   Knowledge Consistency Checker (KCC)   replication   

connection request policy

A set of conditions and profile settings that network administrators use to specify how Internet Authentication Service (IAS) servers handle incoming authentication and accounting request messages.

See also: authentication   Internet Authentication Service (IAS)   remote access policy   


A network protocol in which a sender broadcasts traffic on the network to an intended receiver without first establishing a connection to the receiver.

See also: protocol   


A type of network protocol that requires an end-to-end virtual connection between the sender and receiver before communicating across the network.

See also: protocol   

connector application

For Message Queuing, an application that enables Message Queuing computers to communicate with computers that use other messaging systems.

See also: connector queue   foreign computer   Message Queuing   

connector queue

For Message Queuing, a queue created on servers running a connector application. You can use the connector application to exchange messages with computers that are running other message-queuing products.

See also: connector application   foreign computer   Message Queuing   


A framework for hosting administrative tools, such as Microsoft Management Console (MMC). A console is defined by the items in its console tree, which might include folders or other containers, World Wide Web pages, and other administrative items. A console has windows that can provide views of the console tree and the administrative properties, services, and events that are acted on by the items in the console tree.

See also: console tree   details pane   Microsoft Management Console (MMC)   

console tree

The left pane in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) that displays the items contained in the console. The items in the console tree and their hierarchical organization determine the capabilities of a console.

See also: details pane   Microsoft Management Console (MMC)   

constant bit rate (CBR)

An asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) service type that supports constant bandwidth allocation. This service type is used for voice and video transmissions that require little or no cell loss and rigorous timing controls during transmission.

See also: asynchronous transfer mode (ATM)   bandwidth   

constrained delegation

The ability to specify that a service or computer account can perform Kerberos delegation to a limited set of services.

See also: delegation   Kerberos V5 authentication protocol   service   

container object

An object that can logically contain other objects. For example, a folder is a container object.

See also: Active Directory   noncontainer object   object   


The process of stabilizing a system after changes occur in the network. For dynamic routing, if a route becomes unavailable, routers send update messages throughout the network, reestablishing information about preferred routes. For Network Load Balancing, a process by which hosts exchange messages to determine a new, consistent state of the cluster and to elect the default host. During convergence, a new load distribution is determined for hosts that share the handling of network traffic for specific Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports.

See also: cluster   default host   host   Network Load Balancing   routing   User Datagram Protocol (UDP)   

copy backup

A backup that copies all selected files but does not mark each file as having been backed up (in other words, the archive attribute is not cleared). Copying is useful if you want to back up files between normal and incremental backups because copying does not affect these other backup operations.

See also: daily backup   differential backup   incremental backup   normal backup   

copy set

A duplicate of the media master that Remote Storage copies to a different tape or disk. Copy sets are typically used for backup purposes.

See also: media master   Remote Storage   

count to infinity

A loop that happens when a link in a network goes down and routers on the network update their routing tables with incorrect hop counts. For example, a loop can develop if the link to Router C goes down. Router B then advertises that the link is down and that it has no route to C. Because Router A has a route to C with a metric of 2, it responds to Router B and sends its link to C. Router B then updates its table to include a link with metric 3, and the routers continue to announce and update their links to C until they reach the number 16. This is a count to infinity.

See also: router   

CPU Time

In Task Manager, the total processor time, in seconds, used by a process since it started.

See also: Task Manager   

CPU Usage

In Task Manager, the percentage of time that a process used the CPU since the last update. This percentage is displayed in Task Manager on the Processes tab, under the CPU column heading.

See also: Task Manager   

crash consistency

A feature of shadow copy backups that ensures all files are backed up, regardless of their state.

See also: volume shadow copy   

Crash Dump Type

Specifies the file format Dr. Watson will use to store the information. The Full format contains the entire memory space of the program, as well as the program image itself, the handle table, and other information that will be useful to the debugger. The Mini format may include the full memory and handle table, or it may simply contain information about a single thread. The Windows NT 4.0-compatible Full format provides you with the opportunity to use older tools to analyze the dump file. Crash Dump Type is only available when you have selected the Create Crash Dump File check box.

CRC errors

Errors caused by the failure of a cyclic redundancy check. A CRC error indicates that one or more characters in the data packet received were found garbled on arrival.


Information that includes identification and proof of identification that is used to gain access to local and network resources. Examples of credentials are user names and passwords, smart cards, and certificates.

See also: password   smart card   


See other term: certificate revocation list (CRL)  

CRL distribution point

An optional extension in an X.509 v3 certificate that identifies how information is obtained. Also, a directory entry or other distribution source for certificate revocation lists.

See also: certificate revocation list (CRL)   X.509 v3 certificate   

cross-reference object

An object in which Active Directory stores information about directory partitions and external directory services. An example of an external directory service is another LDAP-compliant directory.

See also: Active Directory   directory partition   Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)   


An application programming interface (API) that is provided as part of Microsoft Windows. CryptoAPI provides a set of functions that allows applications to encrypt or digitally sign data in a flexible manner while providing protection for the user`s sensitive private key data. Actual cryptographic operations are performed by independent modules known as cryptographic service providers (CSPs).

See also: application programming interface (API)   cryptographic service provider (CSP)   private key   

cryptographic checksum

A mathematical value that is a result of a calculation involving a cryptographic algorithm and a cryptographic key. Also known as an integrity check value (ICV) or a message integrity code (MIC).

See also: cryptography   

cryptographic service provider (CSP)

The code that performs authentication, encoding, and encryption services that Windows-based applications access through CryptoAPI. A CSP is responsible for creating keys, destroying them, and using them to perform a variety of cryptographic operations. Each CSP provides a different implementation of the CryptoAPI. Some provide stronger cryptographic algorithms, while others use hardware components, such as smart cards.

See also: authentication   CryptoAPI   encryption   service   smart card   


The study or analysis of codes and encoding methods used to secure information. Cryptography is used to provide confidentiality, data integrity, authentication (entity and data origin), and nonrepudiation.

See also: authentication   nonrepudiation   




See other term: certificate trust list (CTL)  

custom file type

Typically, files with extensions that have been created for special kinds of files. Custom file types are not tracked by the system registry.

See also: registry   

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