VALUES Function (DAX)
Returns a one-column table that contains the distinct values from the specified column. In other words, duplicate values are removed and only unique values are returned.
This function cannot be used to return values into a cell or column on a worksheet; rather, you use it as an intermediate function, nested in a formula, to get a list of distinct values that can be counted, or used to filter or sum other values.
When you use the VALUES function in a context that has been filtered, such as in a PivotTable, the unique values returned by VALUES are affected by the filter. For example, if you filter by Region, and return a list of the values for City, the list will include only those cities in the regions permitted by the filter. To return all of the cities, regardless of existing filters, you must use the ALL function to remove filters from the table. The second example demonstrates use of ALL with VALUES.
In most scenarios, the results of the VALUES function are identical to those of the DISTINCT function. Both functions remove duplicates and return a list of the possible values in the specified column. However, the VALUES function can also return an Unknown member. This unknown value is useful in cases where you are looking up distinct values from a related table, but a value used in the relationship is missing from one table. In database terminology, this is termed a violation of referential integrity. Such mismatches in data can easily occur when one table is being updated and the related table is not.
The following table summarizes the mismatch between data that can occur in two related tables when referential integrity is not preserved.
June 1 sales
June 2 sales
(no order dates have been entered)
June 3 sales
If you used the DISTINCT function to return a list of dates from the PivotTable containing these tables, only two dates would be returned. However, if you use the VALUES function, the function returns the two dates plus an additional blank member. Also, any row from the MySales table that does not have a matching date in the MyOrders table will be "matched" to this unknown member.
The following formula counts the number of unique invoices (sales orders), and produces the following results when used in a report that includes the Product Category Names: