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Use Date and Time Types

 

System_CAPS_ICON_warning.jpg Warning

SQL Server Native Client (SNAC) is not supported beyond SQL Server 2012. Avoid using SNAC in new development work, and plan to modify applications that currently use it. The Microsoft ODBC Driver for SQL Server provides native connectivity from Windows to Microsoft SQL Server and Microsoft Azure SQL Database.

This sample shows how to initialize the date/time data structures that were added in SQL Server 2008. It then prepares the input values, binds parameters, and executes the query. For more information about using these types, see Date and Time Improvements (ODBC).

You will need an ODBC data source called DateTime. The default database for DateTime should be tempdb. This data source must be based on the ODBC driver for SQL Server Native Client.

If you will build and run this sample as a 32-bit application on a 64-bit operating system, you must create the ODBC data source with the ODBC Administrator in %windir%\SysWOW64\odbcad32.exe.

This sample connects to your computer's default SQL Server instance. To connect to a named instance, change the definition of the ODBC data source to specify the instance using the following format: server\namedinstance. By default, SQL Server Express installs to a named instance.

The first (Transact-SQL) code listing creates a table used by this sample.

Compile the second (C++) code listing with odbc32.lib and user32.lib. Make sure your INCLUDE environment variable includes the directory that contains sqlncli.h.

The third (Transact-SQL) code listing deletes the table used by this sample.

use tempdb  
GO  
  
IF EXISTS (SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'DateTimeTypes')  
DROP TABLE DateTimeTypes  
GO  
  
CREATE TABLE DateTimeTypes (datecol date, time2col time(7), datetime2col datetime2(7), datetimeoffsetcol datetimeoffset(7))  
GO  

// compile with: odbc32.lib user32.lib  
#include <windows.h>  
#include <Sqlext.h>  
#include <mbstring.h>  
#include <sqlncli.h>  
#include <stdio.h>  
  
#define MAX_DATA 1024  
#define MYSQLSUCCESS(rc) ( (rc == SQL_SUCCESS) || (rc == SQL_SUCCESS_WITH_INFO) )  
  
class direxec {  
   RETCODE rc;   // ODBC return code  
   HENV henv;   // Environment  
   HDBC hdbc;   // Connection Handle  
   HSTMT hstmt;   // Statement Handle  
   SQLHDESC hdesc;   // Descriptor handle  
   unsigned char szData[MAX_DATA];   // Returned Data Storage  
   SDWORD cbData;   // Output Lenght of data  
   unsigned char char_ds_name[SQL_MAX_DSN_LENGTH];   // Data Source Name  
  
   SQL_DATE_STRUCT date;   // date structure  
   SQL_SS_TIME2_STRUCT time2;   // time2 structure  
   SQL_TIMESTAMP_STRUCT datetime2;   // datetime2 structure  
   SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET_STRUCT dateTimeOffset;   // datetimeoffset structure  
  
   SQLLEN cbdate;   // size of date structure  
   SQLLEN cbtime2;   // size of time structure  
   SQLLEN cbdatetime2;   // size of datetime2  
   SQLLEN cbtimestampoffset;   //size of dateTimeOffset  
  
public:  
   direxec();   // Constructor  
   void sqlconn();   // Allocate env, stat and conn  
  
   void sqldisconn();   // Free pointers to env, stat, conn and disconnect  
   void error_out();   // Display errors  
   void check_rc(RETCODE rc);   // Checks for success of the return code  
  
   void sqlinsert();   // Insert into the table  
};  
  
// Constructor initializes the string char_ds_name with the data source name and  
// initialize the data structures to with the date to be inserted.  
direxec::direxec() {  
   _mbscpy_s(char_ds_name, (const unsigned char *)"DateTime");  
  
   // Initialize the date structure  
   date.day = 12;  
   date.month = 10;  
   date.year = 2001;  
  
   // Initialize the time structure  
   time2.hour = 21;  
   time2.minute = 45;  
   time2.second = 52;  
   time2.fraction = 100  ;  
  
   // Initialize the datetime2 structure  
   datetime2.year = 2007;  
   datetime2.month = 12;  
   datetime2.day = 26;  
   datetime2.hour = 0;  
   datetime2.minute = 0;  
   datetime2.second = 0;  
   datetime2.fraction = 100;   
  
   // Initialize the timestampoffset structure  
   dateTimeOffset.year = 2007;  
   dateTimeOffset.month = 3;  
   dateTimeOffset.day = 11;  
   dateTimeOffset.hour = 2;  
   dateTimeOffset.minute = 30;  
   dateTimeOffset.second = 29;  
   dateTimeOffset.fraction = 200;  
   dateTimeOffset.timezone_hour = -8;  
   dateTimeOffset.timezone_minute = 0;  
  
   // Size of structures   
   cbdate = sizeof(SQL_DATE_STRUCT);  
   cbtime2 = sizeof(SQL_SS_TIME2_STRUCT);  
   cbdatetime2 = sizeof(SQL_TIMESTAMP_STRUCT);  
   cbtimestampoffset = sizeof(SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET_STRUCT);  
  
}   // direxec  
  
// Allocate environment handles, connection handle, connect to data source, and allocate statement handle  
void direxec::sqlconn() {  
   // Allocate the enviroment handle  
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, SQL_NULL_HANDLE, &henv);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   // Set the ODBC version to version 3  
   rc = SQLSetEnvAttr(henv, SQL_ATTR_ODBC_VERSION, (SQLPOINTER) SQL_OV_ODBC3, SQL_IS_INTEGER);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   // Allocate the database connection handle  
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DBC, henv, &hdbc);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   // Connect to the database  
   rc = SQLConnect(hdbc, char_ds_name, SQL_NTS, NULL, 0, NULL, 0);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   // Allocate the statement handle  
   rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hdbc, &hstmt);   
   check_rc(rc);    
  
   // Allocate the descriptor handle  
   rc = rc = SQLAllocHandle(SQL_HANDLE_DESC, hdbc, &hdesc);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
}   // direxec::sqlconn  
  
// Display error message from the DiagRecord  
void direxec::error_out() {  
   // String to hold the SQL State  
   unsigned char szSQLSTATE[10];  
  
   // Error code  
   SDWORD nErr;  
  
   // The error message  
   unsigned char msg[SQL_MAX_MESSAGE_LENGTH + 1];  
  
   // Size of the message  
   SWORD cbmsg;  
  
   // If hstmt is not null use that for getting the DiagRec  
   if (hstmt)  
      rc = SQLGetDiagRec(SQL_HANDLE_STMT, hstmt, 1, szSQLSTATE, &nErr, msg, sizeof(msg), &cbmsg);  
   // else get the diag record from the env  
   else  
      rc = SQLGetDiagRec(SQL_HANDLE_ENV, henv, 1, szSQLSTATE, &nErr, msg, sizeof(msg), &cbmsg);  
  
   // If the rc is successful, show the message using a message box  
   if ( rc == SQL_SUCCESS) {  
      char hold_err[100];  
      _itoa_s(nErr, hold_err, 100, 10);  
      _snprintf_s((char *)szData, MAX_DATA, MAX_DATA - 1, "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s" "%s",   
        "Error:", "\n", "SQLSTATE= ", szSQLSTATE, ", Native error=", hold_err, ", msg = ", msg);  
      MessageBox(NULL, (const char *)szData, "ODBC Error", MB_OK);  
   }  
}   // direxec::error_out  
  
// Checks the return code.  If failure, displays the error, free the memory and exits the program  
void direxec::check_rc(RETCODE rc) {  
   if (!MYSQLSUCCESS(rc)) {  
      error_out();  
      SQLFreeEnv(henv);  
      SQLFreeConnect(hdbc);  
      exit(-1);  
   }   
}   // direxec::check_rc  
  
// Function to insert dates into the table.  
void direxec::sqlinsert() {     
   rc = SQLPrepare(hstmt, (SQLCHAR *) "INSERT INTO DateTimeTypes (datecol, time2col, datetime2col, datetimeoffsetcol) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?)", SQL_NTS);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 1, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_TYPE_DATE, SQL_TYPE_DATE, 10, 0, &date, 0, &cbdate);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 2, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_BINARY, SQL_SS_TIME2, 16, 7, &time2, 0, &cbtime2);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 3, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_TIMESTAMP, SQL_TYPE_TIMESTAMP, 27, 7, &datetime2, 0, &cbdatetime2);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   rc = SQLBindParameter(hstmt, 4, SQL_PARAM_INPUT, SQL_C_BINARY, SQL_SS_TIMESTAMPOFFSET, 34, 7, &dateTimeOffset, 0, &cbtimestampoffset);  
   check_rc(rc);  
  
   rc = SQLExecute(hstmt);  
   check_rc(rc);  
}   // direxec::sqlinsert  
  
int main() {  
   direxec x;  
  
   // Allocate handles, and connect.  
   x.sqlconn();   
  
   // Insert all into the table  
   x.sqlinsert();  
}  

USE tempdb  
GO  
  
IF EXISTS (SELECT name FROM sysobjects WHERE name = 'DateTimeTypes')  
DROP TABLE DateTimeTypes  
GO  

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