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Updated: May 8, 2014

Applies To: Windows PowerShell 2.0, Windows PowerShell 3.0, Windows PowerShell 4.0, Windows PowerShell 5.0


    Describes how to work with command parameters in Windows PowerShell. 

    Most Windows PowerShell commands, such as cmdlets, functions, and scripts,
    rely on parameters to allow users to select options or provide input. The
    parameters follow the command name and have the following form:

        -<parameter_name> <parameter_value>

    The name of the parameter is preceded by a hyphen (-), which signals to 
    Windows PowerShell that the word following the hyphen is a parameter name.
    Some parameters do not require or accept a parameter value. Other parameters 
    require a value, but do not require the parameter name in the command.
    The type of parameters and the requirements for those parameters vary. To
    find information about the parameters of a command, use the Get-Help cmdlet. 
    For example, to find information about the parameters of the Get-ChildItem
    cmdlet, type:

        Get-Help Get-ChildItem

    To find information about the parameters of a script, use the full path to
    the script file. For example:

        Get-Help $home\Documents\Scripts\Get-Function.ps1
    The Get-Help cmdlet returns various details about the command, including a
    description, the command syntax, information about the parameters, and examples
    showing how to use the parameters in a command.

    You can also use the Parameter parameter of the Get-Help cmdlet to find
    information about a particular parameter. Or, you can use the Parameter parameter
    with the wildcard character (*) value to find information about all parameters
    of the command. For example, the following command gets information about all 
    parameters of the Get-Member cmdlet:

        Get-Help Get-Member -Parameter *

    Optional parameters have a default value, which is the value that is used
    or assumed when the parameter is not specified in the command. 

    For example, the default value of the ComputerName parameter of many cmdlets
    is the name of the local computer. As a result, the local computer name is 
    used in the command unless the ComputerName parameter is specified.

    To find the default parameter value, see help topic for the cmdlet. The 
    parameter description should include the default value.

    You can also set a custom default value for any parameter of a cmdlet or 
    advanced function. For information about setting custom default values, see


    When you use the Full, Parameter, or Online parameters of the Get-Help cmdlet,
    Get-Help displays a parameter attribute table with detailed information
    about the parameter.

    This information includes the details you need to know to use the 
    parameter. For example, the help topic for the Get-ChildItem cmdlet 
    includes the following details about its Path parameter:

        -path <string[]>
            Specifies a path of one or more locations. Wildcard characters are
            permitted. The default location is the current directory (.).

        Required?                    false
        Position?                    1
        Default value                Current directory
        Accept pipeline input?       true (ByValue, ByPropertyName)
        Accept wildcard characters?  true

    The parameter information includes the parameter syntax,
    a description of the parameter, and the parameter attributes.
    The following sections describe the parameter attributes.

  Parameter Required?
    This setting indicates whether the parameter is mandatory, that
    is, whether all commands that use this cmdlet must include this
    parameter. When the value is "True" and the parameter is missing
    from the command, Windows PowerShell prompts you for a value for
    the parameter.

  Parameter Position?
    This setting indicates whether you can supply a parameter's value 
    without preceding it with the parameter name. If set to "0" or "named," 
    a parameter name is required. This type of parameter is referred to as
    a named parameter. A named parameter can be listed in any position 
    after the cmdlet name.

    If the "Parameter position?" setting is set to an integer other than 0, 
    the parameter name is not required. This type of parameter is referred 
    to as a positional parameter, and the number indicates the position 
    in which the parameter must appear in relation to other positional 
    parameters. If you include the parameter name for a positional 
    parameter, the parameter can be listed in any position after the
    cmdlet name.

    For example, the Get-ChildItem cmdlet has Path and Exclude parameters. 
    The "Parameter position?" setting for Path is 1, which means that it
    is a positional parameter. The "Parameter position?" setting for Exclude
    is 0, which means that it is a named parameter. 

    This means that Path does not require the parameter name, but its
    parameter value must be the first or only unnamed parameter value
    in the command. However, because the Exclude parameter is a named 
    parameter, you can place it in any position in the command.

    As a result of the "Parameter position?" settings for these two 
    parameters, you can use any of the following commands:

        Get-ChildItem -path c:\techdocs -exclude *.ppt
        Get-ChildItem c:\techdocs -exclude *.ppt
        Get-ChildItem -exclude *.ppt -path c:\techdocs
        Get-ChildItem -exclude *.ppt c:\techdocs

    If you were to include another positional parameter without including 
    the parameter name, that parameter would have to be placed in the order 
    specified by the "Parameter position?" setting.

  Parameter Type
    This setting specifies the Microsoft .NET Framework type of the parameter 
    value. For example, if the type is Int32, the parameter value must be an
    integer. If the type is string, the parameter value must be a 
    character string. If the string contains spaces, the value must be 
    enclosed in quotation marks, or the spaces must be preceded by the 
    escape character (`).

  Default Value
    This setting specifies the value that the parameter will assume
    if no other value is provided. For example, the default value of
    the Path parameter is often the current directory. Required
    parameters never have a default value. For many optional parameters,
    there is no default because the parameter has no effect if it is
    not used. 

  Accepts Multiple Values?
    This setting indicates whether a parameter accepts multiple
    parameter values. When a parameter accepts multiple values,
    you can type a comma-separated list as the value of the parameter
    in the command, or save a comma-separated list (an array) in a
    variable, and then specify the variable as the parameter value.

    For example, the ServiceName parameter of the Get-Service
    cmdlet accepts multiple values. The following commands are both valid:

        get-service -servicename winrm, netlogon

        $s = "winrm", "netlogon"
        get-service -servicename $s

  Accepts Pipeline Input?
    This setting indicates whether you can use the pipeline operator
    (|) to send a value to the parameter. 

    Value                    Description
    -----                    -----------
    False                    Indicates that you cannot pipe a value to the 

    True (by Value)          Indicates that you can pipe any value to the 
                             parameter, just so the value has the .NET 
                             Framework type specified for the parameter or the
                             value can be converted to the specified .NET 
                             Framework type.

                             When a parameter is "True (by Value)", Windows 
                             PowerShell tries to associate any piped values 
                             with that parameter before it tries other methods
                             to interpret the command.

    True (by Property Name)  Indicates that you can pipe a value to the 
                             parameter, but the .NET Framework type of the 
                             parameter must include a property with the same
                             name as the parameter.
                             For example, you can pipe a value to a Name 
                             parameter only when the value has a property 
                             called "Name".

  Accepts Wildcard Characters?
    This setting indicates whether the parameter's value can contain 
    wildcard characters so that the parameter value can be matched to more 
    than one existing item in the target container.

  Common Parameters
    Common parameters are parameters that you can use with any cmdlet.
    For more information about common parameters, see about_CommonParameters


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