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sys.database_principals (Transact-SQL)

 

Updated: September 17, 2015

THIS TOPIC APPLIES TO: yesSQL Server (starting with 2008)yesAzure SQL DatabaseyesAzure SQL Data Warehouse yesParallel Data Warehouse

Returns a row for each security principal in a SQL Server database.

Column nameData typeDescription
namesysnameName of principal, unique within the database.
principal_idintID of principal, unique within the database.
typechar(1)Principal type:

A = Application role

C = User mapped to a certificate

E = External user from Azure Active Directory

G = Windows group

K = User mapped to an asymmetric key

R = Database role

S = SQL user

U = Windows user

X = External group from Azure Active Directory group or applications
type_descnvarchar(60)Description of principal type.

APPLICATION_ROLE

CERTIFICATE_MAPPED_USER

EXTERNAL_USER

WINDOWS_GROUP

ASYMMETRIC_KEY_MAPPED_USER

DATABASE_ROLE

SQL_USER

WINDOWS_USER

EXTERNAL_GROUPS
default_schema_namesysnameName to be used when SQL name does not specify a schema. Null for principals not of type S, U, or A.
create_datedatetimeTime at which the principal was created.
modify_datedatetimeTime at which the principal was last modified.
owning_principal_idintID of the principal that owns this principal. All principals except Database Roles must be owned by dbo.
sidvarbinary(85)SID (Security Identifier) of the principal. NULL for SYS and INFORMATION SCHEMAS.
is_fixed_rolebitIf 1, this row represents an entry for one of the fixed database roles: db_owner, db_accessadmin, db_datareader, db_datawriter, db_ddladmin, db_securityadmin, db_backupoperator, db_denydatareader, db_denydatawriter.
authentication_typeintApplies to: SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016.

Signifies authentication type. The following are the possible values and their descriptions.

0 : No authentication
1 : Instance authentication
2 : Database authentication
3 : Windows Authentication
authentication_type_descnvarchar(60)Applies to: SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016.

Description of the authentication type. The following are the possible values and their descriptions.

NONE : No authentication
INSTANCE : Instance authentication
DATABASE : Database authentication
WINDOWS : Windows Authentication
default_language_namesysnameApplies to: SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016.

Signifies the default language for this principal.
default_language_lcidintApplies to: SQL Server 2012 through SQL Server 2016.

Signifies the default LCID for this principal.

The PasswordLastSetTime properties are available on all supported configurations of SQL Server, but the other properties are only available when SQL Server is running on Windows Server 2003 or later and both CHECK_POLICY and CHECK_EXPIRATION are enabled. See Password Policy for more information.

Any user can see their own user name, the system users, and the fixed database roles. To see other users, requires ALTER ANY USER, or a permission on the user. To see user-defined roles, requires ALTER ANY ROLE, or membership in the role.

A: Listing all the permissions of database principals

The following query lists the permissions explicitly granted or denied to database principals.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


The permissions of fixed database roles do not appear in sys.database_permissions. Therefore, database principals may have additional permissions not listed here.

SELECT pr.principal_id, pr.name, pr.type_desc,   
    pr.authentication_type_desc, pe.state_desc, pe.permission_name  
FROM sys.database_principals AS pr  
JOIN sys.database_permissions AS pe  
    ON pe.grantee_principal_id = pr.principal_id;  

B: Listing permissions on schema objects within a database

The following query joins sys.database_principals and sys.database_permissions to sys.objects and sys.schemas to list permissions granted or denied to specific schema objects.

SELECT pr.principal_id, pr.name, pr.type_desc,   
    pr.authentication_type_desc, pe.state_desc,   
    pe.permission_name, s.name + '.' + o.name AS ObjectName  
FROM sys.database_principals AS pr  
JOIN sys.database_permissions AS pe  
    ON pe.grantee_principal_id = pr.principal_id  
JOIN sys.objects AS o  
    ON pe.major_id = o.object_id  
JOIN sys.schemas AS s  
    ON o.schema_id = s.schema_id;  

C: Listing all the permissions of database principals

The following query lists the permissions explicitly granted or denied to database principals.

System_CAPS_ICON_important.jpg Important


The permissions of fixed database roles do not appear in sys.database_permissions. Therefore, database principals may have additional permissions not listed here.

SELECT pr.principal_id, pr.name, pr.type_desc,   
    pr.authentication_type_desc, pe.state_desc, pe.permission_name  
FROM sys.database_principals AS pr  
JOIN sys.database_permissions AS pe  
    ON pe.grantee_principal_id = pr.principal_id;  

D: Listing permissions on schema objects within a database

The following query joins sys.database_principals and sys.database_permissions to sys.objects and sys.schemas to list permissions granted or denied to specific schema objects.

SELECT pr.principal_id, pr.name, pr.type_desc,   
    pr.authentication_type_desc, pe.state_desc,   
    pe.permission_name, s.name + '.' + o.name AS ObjectName  
FROM sys.database_principals AS pr  
JOIN sys.database_permissions AS pe  
    ON pe.grantee_principal_id = pr.principal_id  
JOIN sys.objects AS o  
    ON pe.major_id = o.object_id  
JOIN sys.schemas AS s  
    ON o.schema_id = s.schema_id;  

Principals (Database Engine)
sys.server_principals (Transact-SQL)
Security Catalog Views (Transact-SQL)
Contained Database Users - Making Your Database Portable
Connecting to SQL Database By Using Azure Active Directory Authentication

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