TimeSpan Structure

 

Represents a time interval.

To browse the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source.

Namespace:   System
Assembly:  mscorlib (in mscorlib.dll)

[SerializableAttribute]
[ComVisibleAttribute(true)]
public struct TimeSpan : IComparable, IComparable<TimeSpan>, 
	IEquatable<TimeSpan>, IFormattable

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubmethodTimeSpan(Int32, Int32, Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the TimeSpan structure to a specified number of hours, minutes, and seconds.

System_CAPS_pubmethodTimeSpan(Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the TimeSpan structure to a specified number of days, hours, minutes, and seconds.

System_CAPS_pubmethodTimeSpan(Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32, Int32)

Initializes a new instance of the TimeSpan structure to a specified number of days, hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds.

System_CAPS_pubmethodTimeSpan(Int64)

Initializes a new instance of the TimeSpan structure to the specified number of ticks.

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubpropertyDays

Gets the days component of the time interval represented by the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyHours

Gets the hours component of the time interval represented by the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyMilliseconds

Gets the milliseconds component of the time interval represented by the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyMinutes

Gets the minutes component of the time interval represented by the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertySeconds

Gets the seconds component of the time interval represented by the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTicks

Gets the number of ticks that represent the value of the current TimeSpan structure.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTotalDays

Gets the value of the current TimeSpan structure expressed in whole and fractional days.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTotalHours

Gets the value of the current TimeSpan structure expressed in whole and fractional hours.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTotalMilliseconds

Gets the value of the current TimeSpan structure expressed in whole and fractional milliseconds.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTotalMinutes

Gets the value of the current TimeSpan structure expressed in whole and fractional minutes.

System_CAPS_pubpropertyTotalSeconds

Gets the value of the current TimeSpan structure expressed in whole and fractional seconds.

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubmethodAdd(TimeSpan)

Returns a new TimeSpan object whose value is the sum of the specified TimeSpan object and this instance.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticCompare(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Compares two TimeSpan values and returns an integer that indicates whether the first value is shorter than, equal to, or longer than the second value.

System_CAPS_pubmethodCompareTo(Object)

Compares this instance to a specified object and returns an integer that indicates whether this instance is shorter than, equal to, or longer than the specified object.

System_CAPS_pubmethodCompareTo(TimeSpan)

Compares this instance to a specified TimeSpan object and returns an integer that indicates whether this instance is shorter than, equal to, or longer than the TimeSpan object.

System_CAPS_pubmethodDuration()

Returns a new TimeSpan object whose value is the absolute value of the current TimeSpan object.

System_CAPS_pubmethodEquals(Object)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance is equal to a specified object.(Overrides ValueType.Equals(Object).)

System_CAPS_pubmethodEquals(TimeSpan)

Returns a value indicating whether this instance is equal to a specified TimeSpan object.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticEquals(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Returns a value that indicates whether two specified instances of TimeSpan are equal.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromDays(Double)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified number of days, where the specification is accurate to the nearest millisecond.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromHours(Double)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified number of hours, where the specification is accurate to the nearest millisecond.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromMilliseconds(Double)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified number of milliseconds.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromMinutes(Double)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified number of minutes, where the specification is accurate to the nearest millisecond.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromSeconds(Double)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified number of seconds, where the specification is accurate to the nearest millisecond.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticFromTicks(Int64)

Returns a TimeSpan that represents a specified time, where the specification is in units of ticks.

System_CAPS_pubmethodGetHashCode()

Returns a hash code for this instance.(Overrides ValueType.GetHashCode().)

System_CAPS_pubmethodGetType()

Gets the Type of the current instance.(Inherited from Object.)

System_CAPS_pubmethodNegate()

Returns a new TimeSpan object whose value is the negated value of this instance.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParse(String)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParse(String, IFormatProvider)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified culture-specific format information.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParseExact(String, String, IFormatProvider)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified format and culture-specific format information. The format of the string representation must match the specified format exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParseExact(String, String, IFormatProvider, TimeSpanStyles)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified format, culture-specific format information, and styles. The format of the string representation must match the specified format exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParseExact(String, String[], IFormatProvider)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified array of format strings and culture-specific format information. The format of the string representation must match one of the specified formats exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticParseExact(String, String[], IFormatProvider, TimeSpanStyles)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified formats, culture-specific format information, and styles. The format of the string representation must match one of the specified formats exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSubtract(TimeSpan)

Returns a new TimeSpan object whose value is the difference between the specified TimeSpan object and this instance.

System_CAPS_pubmethodToString()

Converts the value of the current TimeSpan object to its equivalent string representation.(Overrides ValueType.ToString().)

System_CAPS_pubmethodToString(String)

Converts the value of the current TimeSpan object to its equivalent string representation by using the specified format.

System_CAPS_pubmethodToString(String, IFormatProvider)

Converts the value of the current TimeSpan object to its equivalent string representation by using the specified format and culture-specific formatting information.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParse(String, IFormatProvider, TimeSpan)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified culture-specific formatting information, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParse(String, TimeSpan)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParseExact(String, String, IFormatProvider, TimeSpan)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified format and culture-specific format information, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded. The format of the string representation must match the specified format exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParseExact(String, String, IFormatProvider, TimeSpanStyles, TimeSpan)

Converts the string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified format, culture-specific format information, and styles, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded. The format of the string representation must match the specified format exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParseExact(String, String[], IFormatProvider, TimeSpan)

Converts the specified string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified formats and culture-specific format information, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded. The format of the string representation must match one of the specified formats exactly.

System_CAPS_pubmethodSystem_CAPS_staticTryParseExact(String, String[], IFormatProvider, TimeSpanStyles, TimeSpan)

Converts the specified string representation of a time interval to its TimeSpan equivalent by using the specified formats, culture-specific format information, and styles, and returns a value that indicates whether the conversion succeeded. The format of the string representation must match one of the specified formats exactly.

NameDescription
System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticMaxValue

Represents the maximum TimeSpan value. This field is read-only.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticMinValue

Represents the minimum TimeSpan value. This field is read-only.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTicksPerDay

Represents the number of ticks in 1 day. This field is constant.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTicksPerHour

Represents the number of ticks in 1 hour. This field is constant.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTicksPerMillisecond

Represents the number of ticks in 1 millisecond. This field is constant.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTicksPerMinute

Represents the number of ticks in 1 minute. This field is constant.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticTicksPerSecond

Represents the number of ticks in 1 second.

System_CAPS_pubfieldSystem_CAPS_staticZero

Represents the zero TimeSpan value. This field is read-only.

NameDescription
System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticAddition(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Adds two specified TimeSpan instances.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticEquality(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether two TimeSpan instances are equal.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticGreaterThan(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether a specified TimeSpan is greater than another specified TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticGreaterThanOrEqual(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether a specified TimeSpan is greater than or equal to another specified TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticInequality(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether two TimeSpan instances are not equal.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticLessThan(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether a specified TimeSpan is less than another specified TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticLessThanOrEqual(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Indicates whether a specified TimeSpan is less than or equal to another specified TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticSubtraction(TimeSpan, TimeSpan)

Subtracts a specified TimeSpan from another specified TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticUnaryNegation(TimeSpan)

Returns a TimeSpan whose value is the negated value of the specified instance.

System_CAPS_puboperatorSystem_CAPS_staticUnaryPlus(TimeSpan)

Returns the specified instance of TimeSpan.

System_CAPS_noteNote

To view the .NET Framework source code for this type, see the Reference Source. You can browse through the source code online, download the reference for offline viewing, and step through the sources (including patches and updates) during debugging; see instructions.

A TimeSpan object represents a time interval (duration of time or elapsed time) that is measured as a positive or negative number of days, hours, minutes, seconds, and fractions of a second. The TimeSpan structure can also be used to represent the time of day, but only if the time is unrelated to a particular date. Otherwise, the DateTime or DateTimeOffset structure should be used instead. (For more information about using the TimeSpan structure to reflect the time of day, see Choosing Between DateTime, DateTimeOffset, TimeSpan, and TimeZoneInfo.)

System_CAPS_noteNote

A TimeSpan value represents a time interval and can be expressed as a particular number of days, hours, minutes, seconds, and milliseconds. Because it represents a general interval without reference to a particular start or end point, it cannot be expressed in terms of years and months, both of which have a variable number of days. It differs from a DateTime value, which represents a date and time without reference to a particular time zone, or a DateTimeOffset value, which represents a specific moment of time.

The largest unit of time that the TimeSpan structure uses to measure duration is a day. Time intervals are measured in days for consistency, because the number of days in larger units of time, such as months and years, varies.

The value of a TimeSpan object is the number of ticks that equal the represented time interval. A tick is equal to 100 nanoseconds, or one ten-millionth of a second. The value of a TimeSpan object can range from TimeSpan.MinValue to TimeSpan.MaxValue.

You can instantiate a TimeSpan value in a number of ways:

  • By calling its implicit default constructor. This creates an object whose value is TimeSpan.Zero, as the following example shows.

    TimeSpan interval = new TimeSpan();
    Console.WriteLine(interval.Equals(TimeSpan.Zero));    // Displays "True".
    
  • By calling one of its explicit constructors. The following example initializes a TimeSpan value to a specified number of hours, minutes, and seconds.

    TimeSpan interval = new TimeSpan(2, 14, 18);
    Console.WriteLine(interval.ToString());              // Displays "02:14:18".
    
  • By calling a method or performing an operation that returns a TimeSpan value. For example, you can instantiate a TimeSpan value that represents the interval between two date and time values, as the following example shows.

    DateTime departure = new DateTime(2010, 6, 12, 18, 32, 0);
    DateTime arrival = new DateTime(2010, 6, 13, 22, 47, 0);
    TimeSpan travelTime = arrival - departure;  
    Console.WriteLine("{0} - {1} = {2}", arrival, departure, travelTime);      
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       6/13/2010 10:47:00 PM - 6/12/2010 6:32:00 PM = 1.04:15:00
    

    You can also initialize a TimeSpan object to a zero time value in this way, as the following example shows.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       static Random rnd = new Random();
    
       public static void Main()
       {
          TimeSpan timeSpent = TimeSpan.Zero;
    
          timeSpent += GetTimeBeforeLunch();
          timeSpent += GetTimeAfterLunch();
    
          Console.WriteLine("Total time: {0}", timeSpent);
       }
    
       private static TimeSpan GetTimeBeforeLunch()
       {
          return new TimeSpan(rnd.Next(3, 6), 0, 0);
       }
    
       private static TimeSpan GetTimeAfterLunch()
       {
          return new TimeSpan(rnd.Next(3, 6), 0, 0);
       }
    }
    // The example displays output like the following:
    //        Total time: 08:00:00
    

    TimeSpan values are returned by arithmetic operators and methods of the DateTime, DateTimeOffset, and TimeSpan structures.

  • By parsing the string representation of a TimeSpan value. You can use the Parse and TryParse methods to convert strings that contain time intervals to TimeSpan values. The following example uses the Parse method to convert an array of strings to TimeSpan values.

    string[] values = { "12", "31.", "5.8:32:16", "12:12:15.95", ".12"};
    foreach (string value in values)
    {
       try {
          TimeSpan ts = TimeSpan.Parse(value);
          Console.WriteLine("'{0}' --> {1}", value, ts);
       }
       catch (FormatException) {
          Console.WriteLine("Unable to parse '{0}'", value);
       }
       catch (OverflowException) {
          Console.WriteLine("'{0}' is outside the range of a TimeSpan.", value);
       }   
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       '12' --> 12.00:00:00
    //       Unable to parse '31.'
    //       '5.8:32:16' --> 5.08:32:16
    //       '12:12:15.95' --> 12:12:15.9500000
    //       Unable to parse '.12'  
    

    In addition, you can define the precise format of the input string to be parsed and converted to a TimeSpan value by calling the ParseExact or TryParseExact method.

You can add and subtract time durations either by using the Addition and Subtraction operators, or by calling the Add and Subtract methods. You can also compare two time durations by calling the Compare, CompareTo, and Equals methods. The TimeSpan structure also includes the Duration and Negate methods, which convert time intervals to positive and negative values,

The range of TimeSpan values is MinValue to MaxValue.

A TimeSpan value can be represented as [-]d.hh:mm:ss.ff, where the optional minus sign indicates a negative time interval, the d component is days, hh is hours as measured on a 24-hour clock, mm is minutes, ss is seconds, and ff is fractions of a second. That is, a time interval consists of a positive or negative number of days without a time of day, or a number of days with a time of day, or only a time of day.

Beginning with the .NET Framework 4, the TimeSpan structure supports culture-sensitive formatting through the overloads of its ToString method, which converts a TimeSpan value to its string representation. The default TimeSpan.ToString() method returns a time interval by using an invariant format that is identical to its return value in previous versions of the .NET Framework. The TimeSpan.ToString(String) overload lets you specify a format string that defines the string representation of the time interval. The TimeSpan.ToString(String, IFormatProvider) overload lets you specify a format string and the culture whose formatting conventions are used to create the string representation of the time interval. TimeSpan supports both standard and custom format strings. (For more information, see Standard TimeSpan Format Strings and Custom TimeSpan Format Strings.) However, only standard format strings are culture-sensitive.

In some cases, code that successfully formats TimeSpan values in .NET Framework 3.5 and earlier versions fails in .NET Framework 4. This is most common in code that calls a <TimeSpan_LegacyFormatMode> element method to format a TimeSpan value with a format string. The following example successfully formats a TimeSpan value in .NET Framework 3.5 and earlier versions, but throws an exception in .NET Framework 4 and later versions. Note that it attempts to format a TimeSpan value by using an unsupported format specifier, which is ignored in .NET Framework 3.5 and earlier versions.

TimeSpan interval = new TimeSpan(12, 30, 45);
string output;
try {
   output = String.Format("{0:r}", interval);
}
catch (FormatException) {
   output = "Invalid Format";
}
Console.WriteLine(output);
// Output from .NET Framework 3.5 and earlier versions:
//       12:30:45
// Output from .NET Framework 4:
//       Invalid Format

If you cannot modify the code, you can restore the legacy formatting of TimeSpan values in one of the following ways:

  • By creating a configuration file that contains the <TimeSpan_LegacyFormatMode> element. Setting this element's enabled attribute to true restores legacy TimeSpan formatting on a per-application basis.

  • By setting the "NetFx40_TimeSpanLegacyFormatMode" compatibility switch when you create an application domain. This enables legacy TimeSpan formatting on a per-application-domain basis. The following example creates an application domain that uses legacy TimeSpan formatting.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          AppDomainSetup appSetup = new AppDomainSetup();
          appSetup.SetCompatibilitySwitches( new string[] { "NetFx40_TimeSpanLegacyFormatMode" } );
          AppDomain legacyDomain = AppDomain.CreateDomain("legacyDomain", 
                                                          null, appSetup);
          legacyDomain.ExecuteAssembly("ShowTimeSpan.exe");
       }
    }
    

    When the following code executes in the new application domain, it reverts to legacy TimeSpan formatting behavior.

    using System;
    
    public class Example
    {
       public static void Main()
       {
          TimeSpan interval = DateTime.Now - DateTime.Now.Date;
          string msg = String.Format("Elapsed Time Today: {0:d} hours.",
                                     interval);
          Console.WriteLine(msg);
       }
    }
    // The example displays the following output:
    //       Elapsed Time Today: 01:40:52.2524662 hours.
    

The following example instantiates a TimeSpan object that represents the difference between two dates. It then displays the TimeSpan object's properties.

// Define two dates.
DateTime date1 = new DateTime(2010, 1, 1, 8, 0, 15);
DateTime date2 = new DateTime(2010, 8, 18, 13, 30, 30);
// Calculate the interval between the two dates.
TimeSpan interval = date2 - date1;
Console.WriteLine("{0} - {1} = {2}", date2, date1, interval.ToString());
// Display individual properties of the resulting TimeSpan object.
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Value of Days Component:", interval.Days);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Total Number of Days:", interval.TotalDays);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Value of Hours Component:", interval.Hours);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Total Number of Hours:", interval.TotalHours);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Value of Minutes Component:", interval.Minutes);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20}", "Total Number of Minutes:", interval.TotalMinutes);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20:N0}", "Value of Seconds Component:", interval.Seconds);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20:N0}", "Total Number of Seconds:", interval.TotalSeconds);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20:N0}", "Value of Milliseconds Component:", interval.Milliseconds);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20:N0}", "Total Number of Milliseconds:", interval.TotalMilliseconds);
Console.WriteLine("   {0,-35} {1,20:N0}", "Ticks:", interval.Ticks);
// the example displays the following output:
//       8/18/2010 1:30:30 PM - 1/1/2010 8:00:15 AM = 229.05:30:15
//          Value of Days Component:                             229
//          Total Number of Days:                   229.229340277778
//          Value of Hours Component:                              5
//          Total Number of Hours:                  5501.50416666667
//          Value of Minutes Component:                           30
//          Total Number of Minutes:                       330090.25
//          Value of Seconds Component:                           15
//          Total Number of Seconds:                      19,805,415
//          Value of Milliseconds Component:                       0
//          Total Number of Milliseconds:             19,805,415,000
//          Ticks:                               198,054,150,000,000

Universal Windows Platform
Available since 8
.NET Framework
Available since 1.1
Portable Class Library
Supported in: portable .NET platforms
Silverlight
Available since 2.0
Windows Phone Silverlight
Available since 7.0
Windows Phone
Available since 8.1

Any public static (Shared in Visual Basic) members of this type are thread safe. Any instance members are not guaranteed to be thread safe.

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