By Mark Russinovich and Thomas Garnier
Published: February 17, 2017
System Monitor (Sysmon) is a Windows system service and device driver that, once installed on a system, remains resident across system reboots to monitor and log system activity to the Windows event log. It provides detailed information about process creations, network connections, and changes to file creation time. By collecting the events it generates using
Windows Event Collection or
SIEM agents and subsequently analyzing them, you can identify malicious or anomalous activity and understand how intruders and malware operate on your network.
Note that Sysmon does not provide analysis of the events it generates, nor does it attempt to protect or hide itself from attackers.
Overview of Sysmon Capabilities
Sysmon includes the following capabilities:
- Logs process creation with full command line for both current and parent processes.
- Records the hash of process image files using SHA1 (the default), MD5, SHA256 or IMPHASH.
- Multiple hashes can be used at the same time.
- Includes a process GUID in process create events to allow for correlation of events even when Windows reuses process IDs.
- Include a session GUID in each events to allow correlation of events on same logon session.
- Logs loading of drivers or DLLs with their signatures and hashes.
- Logs opens for raw read access of disks and volumes
- Optionally logs network connections, including each connection’s source process, IP addresses, port numbers, hostnames and port names.
- Detects changes in file creation time to understand when a file was really created. Modification of file create timestamps is a technique commonly used by malware to cover its tracks.
- Automatically reload configuration if changed in the registry.
- Rule filtering to include or exclude certain events dynamically.
- Generates events from early in the boot process to capture activity made by even sophisticated kernel-mode malware.
Uses Sysmon simple command-line options to install and uninstall it, as well as to check and modify Sysmon’s configuration:
Sysinternals Sysmon v6.00 - System activity monitor
Copyright (C) 2014-2017 Mark Russinovich and Thomas Garnier
Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com
Install: Sysmon.exe -i <configfile>
[-h <[sha1|md5|sha256|imphash|*],...>] [-n [<process,...>]]
Configure: Sysmon.exe -c <configfile>
[--|[-h <[sha1|md5|sha256|imphash|*],...>] [-n [<process,...>]]
Uninstall: Sysmon.exe -u
|-c||Update configuration of an installed Sysmon driver or dump the current configuration if no other argument is provided. Optionally take a configuration file.|
|-h||Specify the hash algorithms used for image identification (default is SHA1). It supports multiple algorithms at the same time. Configuration entry: HashAlgorithms.|
|-i||Install service and driver. Optionally take a configuration file.|
|-l||Log loading of modules. Optionally take a list of processes to track.|
|-m||Install the event manifest (done on service install as well).|
|-n||Log network connections. Optionally take a list of processes to track.|
|-r||Check for signature certificate revocation. |
Configuration entry: CheckRevocation.
|-s||Print configuration schema definition.|
|-u||Uninstall service and driver.|
The service logs events immediately and the driver installs as a boot-start driver to capture activity from early in the boot that the service will write to the event log when it starts.
On Vista and higher, events are stored in "Applications and Services Logs/Microsoft/Windows/Sysmon/Operational"
On older systems, events are written to the System event log.
If you need more information on configuration files, use the '-? config' command. More examples are available on the Sysinternals website.
Specify -accepteula to automatically accept the EULA on installation, otherwise you will be interactively prompted to accept it.
Neither install nor uninstall requires a reboot.
Install with default settings (process images hashed with sha1 and no network monitoring)
sysmon -accepteula –i
Install with md5 and sha256 hashing of process created and monitoring network connections
sysmon -accepteula –i –h md5,sha256 –n
Install Sysmon with a configuration file (as described below)
sysmon –accepteula –i c:\windows\config.xml
Dump the current configuration
Change the configuration to use all hashes, no network monitoring and monitoring of DLLs in Lsass
sysmon –c –h * –l lsass.exe
Change the configuration of sysmon with a configuration file (as described below)
sysmon –c c:\windows\config.xml
Change the configuration to default settings
sysmon –c --
Show the configuration schema:
On Vista and higher, events are stored in "Applications and Services Logs/Microsoft/Windows/Sysmon/Operational", and on older systems events are written to the System event log. Event timestamps are in UTC standard time.
The following are examples of each event type that Sysmon generates.
Event ID 1: Process creation
The process creation event provides extended information about a newly created process. The full command line provides context on the process execution. The ProcessGUID field is a unique value for this process across a domain to make event correlation easier. The hash is a full hash of the file with the algorithms in the HashType field.
Event ID 2: A process changed a file creation time
The change file creation time event is registered when a file creation time is explicitly modified by a process. This event helps tracking the real creation time of a file. Attackers may change the file creation time of a backdoor to make it look like it was installed with the operating system. Note that many processes legitimately change the creation time of a file; it does not necessarily indicate malicious activity.
Event ID 3: Network connection
The network connection event logs TCP/UDP connections on the machine. It is disabled by default. Each connection is linked to a process through the ProcessId and ProcessGUID fields. The event also contains the source and destination host names IP addresses, port numbers and IPv6 status.
Event ID 4: Sysmon service state changed
The service state change event reports the state of the Sysmon service (started or stopped).
Event ID 5: Process terminated
The process terminate event reports when a process terminates. It provides the UtcTime, ProcessGuid and ProcessId of the process.
Event ID 6: Driver loaded
The driver loaded events provides information about a driver being loaded on the system. The configured hashes are provided as well as signature information. The signature is created asynchronously for performance reasons and indicates if the file was removed after loading.
Event ID 7: Image loaded
The image loaded event logs when a module is loaded in a specific process. This event is disabled by default and needs to be configured with the –l option. It indicates the process in which the module is loaded, hashes and signature information. The signature is created asynchronously for performance reasons and indicates if the file was removed after loading. This event should be configured carefully, as monitoring all image load events will generate a large number of events.
Event ID 8: CreateRemoteThread
The CreateRemoteThread event detects when a process creates a thread in another process. This technique is used by malware to inject code and hide in other processes. The event indicates the source and target process. It gives information on the code that will be run in the new thread: StartAddress, StartModule and StartFunction. Note that StartModule and StartFunction fields are inferred, they might be empty if the starting address is outside loaded modules or known exported functions.
Event ID 9: RawAccessRead
The RawAccessRead event detects when a process conducts reading operations from the drive using the \\.\ denotation. This technique is often used by malware for data exfiltration of files that are locked for reading, as well as to avoid file access auditing tools. The event indicates the source process and target device.
Event ID 10: ProcessAccess
The process accesssed event reports when a process opens another process, an operation that’s often followed by information queries or reading and writing the address space of the target process. This enables detection of hacking tools that read the memory contents of processes like Local Security Authority (Lsass.exe) in order to steal credentials for use in Pass-the-Hash attacks. Enabling it can generate significant amounts of logging if there are diagnostic utilities active that repeatedly open processes to query their state, so it generally should only be done so with filters that remove expected accesses.
Event ID 11: FileCreate
File create operations are logged when a file is created or overwritten. This event is useful for monitoring autostart locations, like the Startup folder, as well as temporary and download directories, which are common places malware drops during initial infection.
Event ID 12: RegistryEvent (Object create and delete)
Registry key and value create and delete operations map to this event type, which can be useful for monitoring for changes to Registry autostart locations, or specific malware registry modifications.
Event ID 13: RegistryEvent (Value Set)
This Registry event type identifies Registry value modifications. The event records the value written for Registry values of type DWORD and QWORD.
Event ID 14: RegistryEvent (Key and Value Rename)
Registry key and value rename operations map to this event type, recording the new name of the key or value that was renamed.
Event ID 15: FileCreateStreamHash
This event logs when a named file stream is created, and it logs the hash of the contents of the file to which the stream is assigned (the unnamed stream). There are malware variants that drop their executables or configuration settings via browser downloads, and this event is aimed at capturing that based on the browser attaching a Zone.Identifier “mark of the web” stream.
Event ID 255: Error
This event is generated when an error occurred within Sysmon. They can happen if the system is under heavy load and certain tasked could not be performed or a bug exists in the Sysmon service. You can report any bugs on the Sysinternals forum or over Twitter (
Configuration files can be specified after the -i (installation) or -c (installation) configuration switches. They make it easier to deploy a preset configuration and to filter captured events.
A simple configuration xml file looks like this:
The configuration file contains a schemaversion attribute on the Sysmon tag. This version is independent from the Sysmon binary version and allows the parsing of older configuration files. You can get the current schema version by using the “-? config” command line. Configuration entries are directly under the Sysmon tag and filters are under the EventFiltering tag.
Configuration entries are similar to command line switches. Command line switches have their configuration entry described in the Sysmon usage output. Parameters are optional based on the tag. If a command line switch also enables an event, it needs to be configured though its filter tag. You can specify the -s switch to have Sysmon print the full configuration schema, including event tags as well as the field names and types for each event. For example, here’s the schema for the RawAccessRead event type:
<event name="SYSMON_RAWACCESS_READ" value="9" level="Informational"
template="RawAccessRead detected" rulename="RawAccessRead" version="2">
<data name="UtcTime" inType="win:UnicodeString" outType="xs:string" />
<data name="ProcessGuid" inType="win:GUID" />
<data name="ProcessId" inType="win:UInt32" outType="win:PID" />
<data name="Image" inType="win:UnicodeString" outType="xs:string" />
<data name="Device" inType="win:UnicodeString" outType="xs:string" />
Event filtering entries
Event filtering allows you to filter generated events. In many cases events can be noisy and gathering everything is not possible. For example, you might be interested in network connections only for a certain process, but not all of them. You can filter the output on the host reducing the data to collect.
Each event has its own filter tag under the EventFiltering node in a configuration file:
|2||FileCreateTime||File creation time|
|3||NetworkConnect||Network connection detected|
|4||n/a||Sysmon service state change (cannot be filtered)|
|12||RegistryEvent||Registry object added or deleted|
|13||RegistryEvent||Registry value set|
|14||RegistryEvent||Registry object renamed|
|15||FileCreateStreamHash||File stream created|
|16||n/a||Sysmon configuration change (cannot be filtered)|
|17||PipeEvent||Named pipe created|
|18||PipeEvent||Named pipe connected|
You can also find these tags in the event viewer on the task name.
The onmatch filter is applied if events are matched. It can be changed with the "onmatch" attribute for the filter tag. If the value is ‘include’, it means only matched events are included. If it is set to ‘exclude’, the event will be included except if a rule match. You can specify both an include filter set and an exclude filter set for each event ID, where exclude matches take precedence.
Each filter can include zero or more rules. Each tag under the filter tag is a field name from the event. Rules that specify a condition for the same field name behave as OR conditions, and ones that specify different field name behave as AND conditions. Field rules can also use conditions to match a value. The conditions are as follows (all are case insensitive):
|Is||Default, values are equals|
|is not||Values are different|
|Contains||The field contains this value|
|Excludes||The field does not contain this value|
|begin with||The field begins with this value|
|end with||The field ends with this value|
|less than||Lexicographical comparison is less than zero|
|more than||Lexicographical comparison is more than zero|
|Image||Match an image path (full path or only image name). For example: lsass.exe will match c:\windows\system32\lsass.exe|
You can use a different condition by specifying it as an attribute. This excludes network activity from processes with iexplore.exe in their path:
You can use both include and exclude rules for the same tag, where exclude rules override include rules. Within a rule, filter conditions on the same field have OR behavior, whereas conditions on different fields have AND behavior. In the sample configuration shown earlier, the networking filter uses both an include and exclude rule to capture activity to port 80 and 443 by all processes except those that have iexplore.exe in their name.
- Client: Windows 7 and higher.
- Server: Windows Server 2012 and higher.