Table of contents
TOC
Collapse the table of content
Expand the table of content

Step 3 Configure a Load-Balanced Cluster

James McIllece|Last Updated: 1/25/2017
|
1 Contributor

Applies To: Windows Server 2016

After preparing servers for the cluster, configure load-balancing on the single server, configure the required certificates, and deploy the cluster.

TaskDescription
3.1 Configure the IPv6 prefixIf the corporate environment is IPv4+IPv6, or IPv6-only, then on the single Remote Access server, ensure that the IPv6 prefix assigned to DirectAccess client computers is large enough to cover all of the servers in your cluster.
3.2 Enable load balancingEnable load balancing on the single Remote Access server.
3.3 Install the IP-HTTPS certificateEach server in the cluster requires a server certificate to authenticate IP-HTTPS connection. Export the IP-HTTPS certificate from the single Remote Access server and deploy it on each server you will add to the cluster. This is required only if using non-self-signed certificates.
3.4 Install the network location server certificateIf the single server has the network location server deployed locally, then you will need to deploy the network location server certificate on each server in the cluster. If the network location server is hosted on an external server, a certificate on each server is not required. This is required only if using non-self-signed certificates.
3.5 Add servers to the clusterAdd all servers to the cluster. Remote Access must not be configured on the servers to be added.
3.6 Remove a server from the clusterInstructions for removing a server from the cluster.
3.7 Disable load balancingInstructions for disabling load balancing.
Note

The IP address that is selected for the DIP must not be in use on the network adapters of the first Remote Access server in the cluster. Beginning the DirectAccess deployment with both VIP and DIP added to the network adapter will result in failure.

Note

Make sure not to use a DIP that is already present on another machine on the network.

3.1 Configure the IPv6 prefix

To configure the prefix

  1. On the Remote Access server, click Start, and then click Remote Access Management. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the Remote Access Management Console, click Configuration.

  3. In the middle pane of the console, in the Step 2 DirectAccess Server area, click Edit.

  4. Click Prefix Configuration. On the Prefix Configuration page, in IPv6 prefix assigned to DirectAccess client computers, enter the IPv6 prefix used for DirectAccess client computers with a subnet length of 59, for example, 2001:db8:1:1000::/59. If VPN were also enabled with IPv6, then an IPv6 prefix would be displayed, and the subnet length would need to be changed to 59. Click Next.

  5. In the middle pane of the console, click Finish.

  6. On the Remote Access Review dialog box, review the configuration settings, and then click Apply. On the Applying Remote Access Setup Wizard Settings dialog box, click Close.

3.2 Enable load balancing

To enable load balancing

  1. On the configured DirectAccess server, click Start, and then click Remote Access Management. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the Remote Access Management console, in the left pane, click Configuration, and then in the Tasks pane, click Enable Load Balancing.

  3. In the Enable Load Balancing Wizard, click Next.

  4. Depending on what you chose in planning steps:

    1. Windows NLB: On the Load Balancing Method page, click Use Windows Network Load Balancing (NLB), and then click Next.

    2. External load balancer: On the Load Balancing Method page, click Use an external load balancer, and then click Next.

  5. In a single network adapter deployment, on the Dedicated IP Addresses page, do the following, and then click Next:

    1. In the IPv4 address box, enter the new IPv4 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv4 address will be the virtual IP address (VIP) of the load-balanced cluster. In the Subnet mask box, enter the subnet mask.

    2. If the corporate environment is native IPv6, then in the IPv6 address box, enter the new IPv6 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv6 address will be the VIP of the load-balanced cluster. In the Subnet prefix length box, enter the subnet prefix length.

  6. In a two network adapter deployment, on the External Dedicated IP Addresses page, do the following, and then click Next:

    1. In the IPv4 address box, enter the new external IPv4 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv4 address will be the virtual IP address (VIP) of the load balancing cluster. In the Subnet mask box, enter the subnet mask.

    2. If there are currently native IPv6 addresses configured on the internet-facing network adapter of the Remote Access server, in the IPv6 address box, enter the new external IPv6 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv6 address will be the VIP of the load balancing cluster. In the Subnet prefix length box, enter the subnet prefix length.

  7. In a two network adapter deployment, on the Internal Dedicated IP Addresses page, do the following, and then click Next:

    1. In the IPv4 address box, enter the new internal IPv4 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv4 address will be the VIP of the load balancing cluster. In the Subnet mask box, enter the subnet mask.

    2. If the corporate environment is native IPv6, then in the IPv6 address box, enter the new internal IPv6 address for this Remote Access server; the current IPv6 address will be the VIP of the load balancing cluster. In the Subnet prefix length box, enter the subnet prefix length.

  8. On the Summary page, click Commit.

  9. On the Enable Load Balancing dialog box, click Close.

  10. In the Enable Load Balancing Wizard, click Close.

    Note

    If external load balancing is being used, note the Virtual IPs and provide them as on the external load balancers.

Windows PowerShell*Windows PowerShell equivalent commands*

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

If you chose to use Windows NLB in the planning steps, then execute the following:

Set-RemoteAccessLoadBalancer -InternetDedicatedIPAddress "2.1.1.20/255.255.255.0" -InternalDedicatedIPAddress @("10.1.1.30/255.255.255.0","3ffe::20/64") -InternetVirtualIPAddress @("2.1.1.1/255.255.255.0","2.1.1.2/255.255.255.0") -InternalVirtualIPAddress @("10.1.1.2/255.255.255.0","3ffe::2/64")  

If you chose to use an external load balancer in the planning steps: then execute the following:

Set-RemoteAccessLoadBalancer -InternetDedicatedIPAddress "2.1.1.20/255.255.255.0" -InternalDedicatedIPAddress @("10.1.1.30/255.255.255.0","3ffe::20/64") -UseThirdPrtyLoadBalancer  
Note

It is recommended to not include changes to load-balancer settings with changes to any other settings, if you are using staging GPOs. Any changes to load-balancer settings must be applied first and then other configuration changes should be made. Also, after configuring load-balancer on a new DirectAccess server, please allow some time for the IP changes to be applied and replicated across the DNS servers in the enterprise, before you change other DirectAccess settings related to the new cluster.

3.3 Install the IP-HTTPS certificate

Membership in the local Administrators group, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

To install the IP-HTTPS certificate

  1. On the configured Remote Access server, click Start, type mmc and press ENTER. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the MMC console, on the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in.

  3. On the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, click Finish, and then click OK.

  4. In the left pane of the console, navigate to Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. Right-click the IP-HTTPS certificate, point to All Tasks and click Export.

  5. On the Welcome to the Certificate Export Wizard page, click Next.

  6. On the Export Private Key page, click Yes, export the private key, and then click Next.

  7. On the Export File Format page, click Personal Information Exchange - PKCS #12 (.PFX), and then click Next.

  8. On the Security page, select the Password check box, enter a password in the Password box and confirm the password, and then click Next.

  9. On the File to Export page, enter a name for the certificate file and save it to the desktop, and then click Next.

  10. On the Completing the Certificate Export Wizard page, click Finish.

  11. On the Certificate Export Wizard dialog box, click OK.

  12. Copy the certificate to all servers that you want to be cluster members.

  13. On the new DirectAccess server, click Start, type mmc and press ENTER. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  14. In the MMC console, on the File menu, click Add/Remove Snap-in.

  15. On the Add or Remove Snap-ins dialog box, click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, click Finish, and then click OK.

  16. In the left pane of the console, navigate to Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates. Right click the Certificates node, point to All Tasks, and then click Import.

  17. On the Welcome to the Certificate Import Wizard page, click Next.

  18. On the File to Import page, click Browse to locate the certificate. Select the certificate and then click Next.

  19. On the Private key protection page, in the Password box, type the password, and then click Next.

  20. On the Certificate Store page, click Next.

  21. On the Completing the Certificate Import Wizard page, click Finish.

  22. On the Certificate Import Wizard dialog box, click OK.

  23. Repeat steps 13-22 on all servers that you want to be cluster members.

3.4 Install the network location server certificate

Membership in the local Administrators group, or equivalent, is the minimum required to complete this procedure.

To install a certificate for network location

  1. On the Remote Access server, click Start, type mmc, and then press ENTER. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. Click File, and then click Add/Remove Snap-ins.

  3. Click Certificates, click Add, click Computer account, click Next, click Local computer, click Finish, and then click OK.

  4. In the console tree of the Certificates snap-in, open Certificates (Local Computer)\Personal\Certificates.

  5. Right-click Certificates, point to All Tasks, and then click Request New Certificate.

  6. Click Next twice.

  7. On the Request Certificates page, click the Web Server certificate template, and then click More information is required to enroll for this certificate.

    If the Web Server certificate template does not appear, ensure that the Remote Access server computer account has enroll permissions for the Web Server certificate template. For more information, see Configure Permissions on the Web Server Certificate Template.

  8. On the Subject tab of the Certificate Properties dialog box, in Subject name, for Type, select Common name.

  9. In Value, type the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the intranet name of the network location server website (for example, nls.corp.contoso.com), and then click Add.

  10. Click OK, click Enroll, and then click Finish.

  11. In the details pane of the Certificates snap-in, verify that a new certificate with the FQDN was enrolled with Intended Purposes of Server Authentication.

  12. Right-click the certificate, and then click Properties.

  13. In Friendly Name, type Network Location Certificate, and then click OK.

    Tip

    Steps 12 and 13 are optional, but make it easier for you to select the certificate for network location when configuring Remote Access.

  14. Repeat this procedure on all servers that you want to be cluster members.

3.5 Add servers to the cluster

To add servers to the cluster

  1. On the configured DirectAccess server, click Start, and then click Remote Access Management. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the Remote Access Management Console, click Configuration. In the Tasks pane, under Load Balanced Cluster, click Add or Remove Servers.

  3. On the Add or Remove Servers dialog box, click Add Server.

  4. On the Add a Server dialog box, on the Select Server page, enter the name of the additional Remote Access server, and then click Next.

  5. On the Network Adapters page, do one the following:

    • If you are deploying a topology with two network adapters, in External adapter, select the adapter that is connected to the external network. In Internal adapter, select the adapter that is connected to the internal network.

    • If you are deploying a topology with one network adapter, in Network adapter, select the adapter that is connected to the internal network.

  6. On the Network Adapters page, in Select the certificate used to authenticate IP-HTTPS connections, click Browse to locate and select the IP-HTTPS certificate, and then click Next.

  7. On the Network Location Server page, click Browse to select the certificate for the network location server website running on the Remote Access server, and then click Next.

    Note

    The Network Location Server page appears only when the network location server website is running on the Remote Access server.

    Note

    If VPN were also configured on the Remote Access server, then you would be asked to add the VPN IP address pool information at this point.

  8. On the Summary page, click Add.

  9. On the Completion page, click Close.

  10. Repeat this procedure for all Remote Access servers to be added to the cluster.

  11. On the Add or Remove Servers dialog box, click Commit.

  12. On the Adding and Removing Servers dialog box, click Close.

Windows PowerShell*Windows PowerShell equivalent commands*

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

Add-RemoteAccessLoadBalancerNode -RemoteAccessServer <server name>  
Note

If VPN has not been enabled in a load balanced cluster, you should not provide any VPN address ranges when adding a new server to the cluster using Windows PowerShell cmdlets. If you have done so by mistake, remove the server from the cluster, and add it again to the cluster without specifying the VPN address ranges.

3.6 Remove a server from the cluster

To remove a server from the cluster

  1. On the configured Remote Access server, click Start, and then click Remote Access Management. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the Remote Access Management Console, click Configuration. In the Tasks pane, under Load Balanced Cluster, click Add or Remove Servers.

  3. On the Add or Remove Servers dialog box, select the Remote Access server you want to remove, and then click Remove Server.

  4. On the Remove Server Warning dialog box, make sure you chose the right server, and then click OK.

  5. Repeat this procedure for all Remote Access servers to be removed from the cluster.

  6. On the Add or Remove Servers dialog box, click Commit.

  7. On the Adding and Removing Servers dialog box, click Close.

Windows PowerShell*Windows PowerShell equivalent commands*

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

Remove-RemoteAccessLoadBalancerNode -RemoteAccessServer <server name>  

3.7 Disable load balancing

Do this step using Windows PowerShell

To disable load balancing

  1. On the configured DirectAccess server, click Start, and then click Remote Access Management. If the User Account Control dialog box appears, confirm that the action it displays is what you want, and then click Yes.

  2. In the Remote Access Management Console, click Configuration. In the Tasks pane, under Load Balanced Cluster, click Disable Load Balancing.

  3. On the Disable Load Balancing dialog box, click Ok.

  4. On the Disable Load Balancing dialog box, click Close.

Windows PowerShell*Windows PowerShell equivalent commands*

The following Windows PowerShell cmdlet or cmdlets perform the same function as the preceding procedure. Enter each cmdlet on a single line, even though they may appear word-wrapped across several lines here because of formatting constraints.

set-RemoteAccessLoadBalancer -disable  

Disabling load balancing will remove Remote Access settings and NLB settings (if configured) from all servers except the server from which it is being executed. On this Remote Access server, NLB settings will be removed (if it was configured) but Remote Access settings will remain.

Clicking Remove configuration settings will remove Remote Access and NLB (if configured) from all servers in the deployment.

Note
  • If Remote Access is uninstalled when load balancing is deployed, all the servers are left with DIPs. The VIPs are removed. This causes all routes in the corporate network that are targeted to the VIPs addresses to fail. This also affects DNS entries which were resolved to the VIPs, such as the network location server certificate subject name. To avoid this issue, disable load balancing, which leaves the VIPs on the last Remote Access server, and then uninstall Remote Access.
  • After using the Set-RemoteAccessLoadBalancer cmdlet to disable load balancing, wait for 2 minutes before running any other cmdlet. This should also be done in any scripts that run another cmdlet after the Set-RemoteAccessLoadBalancer -disable cmdlet.
  • Disabling load balancing changes the virtual IP address of the cluster into a dedicated IP address. As a result, any operation that queries for the name of the server will fail until the cached DNS entry on the server expires. Make sure that you do not run any Remote Access PowerShell cmdlets after disabling load balancing until the cache on the server has expired. This problem is more common if you try to disable load balancing on a machine from another machine that is in another domain. This also occurs if you disable load balancing from the Remote Access Management console and may prevent the configuration from loading. The configuration will load after the cache has expired or has been flushed.

See also

© 2017 Microsoft