Software Defined Networking (SDN)
Applies To: Windows Server 2016
You can use this topic to learn about the Software Defined Networking (SDN) technologies that are provided in Windows Server Datacenter edition, System Center 2016, and Microsoft Azure.
In addition to this topic, the following SDN content is available.
Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a method to centrally configure and manage physical and virtual network devices such as routers, switches, and gateways in your datacenter. Virtual network elements such as Hyper-V Virtual Switch, Hyper-V Network Virtualization, and RAS Gateway are designed to be integral elements of your SDN infrastructure.
For Hyper-V hosts and virtual machines (VMs) that run SDN infrastructure servers, such as Network Controller and Software Load Balancing nodes, you must install Windows Server 2016 Datacenter edition. For Hyper-V hosts that contain only tenant workload VMs that are connected to SDN-controlled networks, you can run Windows Server 2016 Standard edition.
While you can still use your existing physical switches, routers, and other hardware devices, you can achieve deeper integration between the virtual network and the physical network if these devices are designed for compatibility with software defined networking.
SDN is possible because the network planes - the management, control, and data planes - are no longer bound to the network devices themselves, but are abstracted for use by other entities, such as datacenter management software like System Center 2016.
SDN allows you to dynamically manage your datacenter network to provide an automated, centralized way to meet the requirements of your applications and workloads. Software defined networking provides the following capabilities.
The ability to abstract your applications and workloads from the underlying physical network, which is accomplished by virtualizing the network. Just as with server virtualization using Hyper-V, the abstractions are consistent and work with your applications and workloads in a non-disruptive manner. For example, software defined networking provides virtual abstractions for your physical network elements, such as IP addresses, switches, and load balancers.
The ability to centrally define and control policies that govern both physical and virtual networks, including traffic flow between these two network types.
The ability to implement network policies in a consistent manner at scale, even as you deploy new workloads or move workloads across virtual or physical networks.
Windows Server includes the following software defined networking technologies.
New in Windows Server 2016, Network Controller provides a centralized, programmable point of automation to manage, configure, monitor, and troubleshoot both virtual and physical network infrastructure in your datacenter. Using Network Controller, you can automate the configuration of network infrastructure instead of performing manual configuration of network devices and services.
Network Controller is a highly available and scalable server role, and provides one application programming interface (API) - the Southbound API - that allows Network Controller to communicate with the network, and a second API - the Northbound API - that allows you to communicate with Network Controller.
Using Windows PowerShell, the Representational State Transfer (REST) API, or a management application, you can use Network Controller to manage the following physical and virtual network infrastructure.
Hyper-V VMs and virtual switches
Physical network switches
Physical network routers
VPN Gateways, including Remote Access Service (RAS) Multitenant Gateways
For more information, see Network Controller.
Hyper-V Network Virtualization helps you abstract your applications and workloads from the physical network by using virtual networks. Virtual networks provide the necessary multitenant isolation while running on a shared physical network fabric, thereby driving up resource utilization. To ensure that you can carry forward your existing investments, you can set up virtual networks on existing networking gear. In addition, virtual networks are compatible with virtual Local Area Networks (VLANs).
For more information, see Hyper-V Network Virtualization.
The Hyper-V Virtual Switch is a software-based layer-2 Ethernet network switch that is available in Hyper-V Manager after you have installed the Hyper-V server role. The switch includes programmatically managed and extensible capabilities to connect virtual machines to both virtual networks and the physical network. In addition, Hyper-V Virtual Switch provides policy enforcement for security, isolation, and service levels.
In Hyper-V Virtual Switch in Windows Server 2016, you can also deploy Switch Embedded Teaming (SET) and Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA). For more information, see the section Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET) in this topic.
For more information about Hyper-V Virtual Switch, see Hyper-V Virtual Switch.
Hosted virtual machines (VMs) and applications require DNS to communicate within their own networks and with external resources on the Internet. With iDNS, you can provide tenants with DNS name resolution services for their isolated, local name space and for Internet resources.
For more information, see Internal DNS Service (iDNS) for SDN.
In today's software defined datacenters, network functions that are being performed by hardware appliances (such as load balancers, firewalls, routers, switches, and so on) are increasingly being virtualized as virtual appliances. This "network function virtualization" is a natural progression of server virtualization and network virtualization. Virtual appliances are quickly emerging and creating a brand new market. They continue to generate interest and gain momentum in both virtualization platforms and cloud services.
The following Network Function Virtualization technologies are available.
Software Load Balancer (SLB) and Network Address Translation (NAT). The north-south and east-west layer 4 load balancer and NAT enhances throughput by supporting Direct Server Return, with which the return network traffic can bypass the Load Balancing multiplexer. For more information, see Software Load Balancing (SLB) for SDN.
Datacenter Firewall. This distributed firewall provides granular access control lists (ACLs), enabling you to apply firewall policies at the VM interface level or at the subnet level.
For more information, see Datacenter Firewall Overview.
RAS Gateway. You can use gateways for bridging traffic between virtual networks and non-virtualized networks; specifically, you can deploy site-to-site VPN gateways, forwarding gateways, and Generic Routing Encapsulation (GRE) gateways. In addition, M+N redundancy of gateways is supported. For more information, see RAS Gateway for SDN.
For more information, see Network Function Virtualization.
In Windows Server 2016, you can enable RDMA on network adapters that are bound to a Hyper-V Virtual Switch with or without Switch Embedded Teaming (SET). This allows you to use fewer network adapters when you want to use RDMA and SET at the same time.
SET is an alternative NIC Teaming solution that you can use in environments that include Hyper-V and the Software Defined Networking (SDN) stack in Windows Server 2016. SET integrates some of the NIC Teaming functionality into the Hyper-V Virtual Switch.
SET allows you to group between one and eight physical Ethernet network adapters into one or more software-based virtual network adapters. These virtual network adapters provide fast performance and fault tolerance in the event of a network adapter failure.
SET member network adapters must all be installed in the same physical Hyper-V host to be placed in a team.
In addition, you can use Windows PowerShell commands to enable Data Center Bridging (DCB), create a Hyper-V Virtual Switch with an RDMA virtual NIC (vNIC), and create a Hyper-V Virtual Switch with SET and RDMA vNICs.
For more information, see Remote Direct Memory Access (RDMA) and Switch Embedded Teaming (SET).
RAS Gateway is a software-based, multitenant, Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) capable router in Windows Server 2016 that is designed for Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) and Enterprises that host multiple tenant virtual networks using Hyper-V Network Virtualization.
RAS Gateway provides gateway pools, M+N redundancy, multiple types of site-to-site VPN connections, and BGP Route Reflector to provide you with flexible design choices for your gateway infrastructure.
For more information, see RAS Gateway for SDN
Cloud Service Providers (CSPs) and Enterprises that are deploying Software Defined Networking (SDN) in Windows Server 2016 can use Software Load Balancing (SLB) to evenly distribute tenant and tenant customer network traffic among virtual network resources. The Windows Server SLB enables multiple servers to host the same workload, providing high availability and scalability.
For more information, see Software Load Balancing (SLB) for SDN.
Windows Server Containers
Windows Server Containers are a lightweight operating system virtualization method used to separate applications or services from other services that are running on the same container host. To enable this, each container has its own view of the operating system, processes, file system, registry, and IP addresses. With Windows Server 2016, you can now connect Windows Server containers to virtual networks. For more information, see Windows Server Containers.