Overview of Windows as a service
- Windows 10
- Windows 10 Mobile
- Windows 10 IoT Mobile
Looking for consumer information? See Windows Update: FAQ
The Windows 10 operating system introduces a new way to build, deploy, and service Windows: Windows as a service. Microsoft has reimagined each part of the process, to simplify the lives of IT pros and maintain a consistent Windows 10 experience for its customers. These improvements focus on maximizing customer involvement in Windows development, simplifying the deployment and servicing of Windows client computers, and leveling out the resources needed to deploy and maintain Windows over time.
Prior to Windows 10, Microsoft released new versions of Windows every few years. This traditional deployment schedule imposed a training burden on users because the feature revisions were often significant. That schedule also meant waiting long periods without new features — a scenario that doesn’t work in today’s rapidly changing world, a world in which new security, management, and deployment capabilities are necessary to address challenges. Windows as a service will deliver smaller feature updates two to three times per year to help address these issues.
In the past, when Microsoft developed new versions of Windows, it typically released technical previews near the end of the process, when Windows was nearly ready to ship. With Windows 10, new features will be delivered to the Windows Insider community as soon as possible — during the development cycle, through a process called flighting — so that organizations can see exactly what Microsoft is developing and start their testing as soon as possible.
Microsoft also depends on receiving feedback from organizations throughout the development process so that it can make adjustments as quickly as possible rather than waiting until after release. For more information about the Windows Insider Program and how to sign up, see the section Windows Insider.
Of course Microsoft also performs extensive internal testing, with engineering teams installing new builds daily, and larger groups of employees installing builds frequently, all before those builds are ever released to the Windows Insider Program.
Deploying Windows 10 is simpler than with previous versions of Windows. When migrating from earlier versions of Windows, an easy in-place upgrade process can be used to automatically preserve all apps, settings, and data. And once running Windows 10, deployment of Windows 10 feature updates will be equally simple.
One of the biggest challenges for organizations when it comes to deploying a new version of Windows is compatibility testing. Whereas compatibility was previously a concern for organizations upgrading to a new version of Windows, Windows 10 is compatible with most hardware and software capable of running on Windows 7 or later. Because of this high level of compatibility, the app compatibility testing process can be greatly simplified.
Application compatibility testing has historically been a burden when approaching a Windows deployment or upgrade. With Windows 10, application compatibility from the perspective of desktop applications, websites, and apps built on the Universal Windows Platform (UWP) has improved tremendously. Microsoft understands the challenges organizations experienced when they migrated from the Windows XP operating system to Windows 7 and has been working to make Windows 10 upgrades a much better experience.
Most Windows 7–compatible desktop applications will be compatible with Windows 10 straight out of the box. Windows 10 achieved such high compatibility because the changes in the existing Win32 application programming interfaces were minimal. Combined with valuable feedback via the Windows Insider Program and telemetry data, this level of compatibility can be maintained through each feature update. As for websites, Windows 10 includes Internet Explorer 11 and its backward-compatibility modes for legacy websites. Finally, UWP apps follow a compatibility story similar to desktop applications, so most of them will be compatible with Windows 10.
For the most important business-critical applications, organizations should still perform testing on a regular basis to validate compatibility with new builds. For remaining applications, consider validating them as part of a pilot deployment process to reduce the time spent on compatibility testing. If it’s unclear whether an application is compatible with Windows 10, IT pros can either consult with the ISV or check the supported software directory at http://www.readyforwindows.com.
Device compatibility in Windows 10 is also very strong; new hardware is not needed for Windows 10 as any device capable of running Windows 7 or later can run Windows 10. In fact, the minimum hardware requirements to run Windows 10 are the same as those required for Windows 7. Most hardware drivers that functioned in Windows 8.1, Windows 8, or Windows 7 will continue to function in Windows 10.
Traditional Windows servicing has included several release types: major revisions (e.g., the Windows 8.1, Windows 8, and Windows 7 operating systems), service packs, and monthly updates. With Windows 10, there are two release types: feature updates that add new functionality two to three times per year, and quality updates that provide security and reliability fixes at least once a month.
With Windows 10, organizations will need to change the way they approach deploying updates. Servicing branches are the first way to separate users into deployment groups for feature and quality updates. With the introduction of servicing branches comes the concept of a deployment ring, which is simply a way to categorize the combination of a deployment group and a servicing branch to group devices for successive waves of deployment. For more information about developing a deployment strategy that leverages servicing branches and deployment rings, see Plan servicing strategy for Windows 10 updates.
For information about each servicing tool available for Windows 10, see Servicing tools.
To align with this new update delivery model, Windows 10 has three servicing branches, each of which provides different levels of flexibility over when these updates are delivered to client computers. For information about the servicing branches available in Windows 10, see Servicing branches.
With Windows 10, Microsoft will package new features into feature updates that can be deployed using existing management tools. Because feature updates are delivered more frequently than with previous Windows releases — two to three times per year rather than every 3–5 years — changes will be in bite-sized chunks rather than all at once and end user readiness time much shorter.
Monthly updates in previous Windows versions were often overwhelming because of the sheer number of updates available each month. Many organizations selectively chose which updates they wanted to install and which they didn’t, and this created countless scenarios in which organizations deployed essential security updates but picked only a subset of nonsecurity fixes.
In Windows 10, rather than receiving several updates each month and trying to figure out which the organization needs, which ultimately causes platform fragmentation, administrators will see one cumulative monthly update that supersedes the previous month’s update, containing both security and nonsecurity fixes. This approach makes patching simpler and ensures that customers’ devices are more closely aligned with the testing done at Microsoft, reducing unexpected issues resulting from patching. The left side of Figure 1 provides an example of Windows 7 devices in an enterprise and what their current patch level might look like. On the right is what Microsoft’s test environment PCs contain. This drastic difference is the basis for many compatibility issues and system anomalies related to Windows updates.
To align with the new method of delivering feature updates and quality updates in Windows 10, Microsoft introduced the concept of servicing branches to allow customers to designate how aggressively their individual devices are updated. For example, an organization may have test devices that the IT department can update with new features as soon as possible, and then specialized devices that require a longer feature update cycle to ensure continuity. With that in mind, Microsoft offers three servicing branches for Windows 10: Current Branch (CB), Current Branch for Business (CBB), and Long-Term Servicing Branch (LTSB). In addition, the Windows Insider Program provides IT pros and other interested parties with prerelease Windows builds that they can test and ultimately provide feedback on to Microsoft. For details about the versions in each servicing branch, see Windows 10 release information.
The concept of servicing branches is new, but organizations can use the same management tools they used to manage updates and upgrades in previous versions of Windows. For more information about the servicing tool options for Windows 10 and their capabilities, see Servicing tools.
Servicing branches are not the only way to separate groups of devices when consuming updates. Each branch can contain subsets of devices, which staggers servicing even further. For information about the servicing strategy and ongoing deployment process for Windows 10, including the role of servicing branches, see Plan servicing strategy for Windows 10 updates.
In the CB servicing model, feature updates are available as soon as Microsoft releases them. Windows 10 version 1511 had few servicing tool options to delay CB feature updates, limiting the use of the CB servicing branch. Windows 10 version 1607, however, includes more servicing tools that can delay CB feature updates for up to 180 days. The CB servicing model is ideal for pilot deployments and testing of Windows 10 feature updates and for users such as developers who need to work with the latest features immediately.
When Microsoft officially releases a feature update for Windows 10, that update is marked for CB, making it available to any PC not configured to defer feature updates so that those devices can immediately install it. Organizations that use Windows Server Update Services (WSUS), Microsoft System Center Configuration Manager, or Windows Update for Business, however, can defer CB feature updates to selective devices by withholding their approval and deployment. In this scenario, the content available for CB will be available but not necessarily immediately mandatory, depending on the policy of the management system. Only one CB build of Windows is supported at a time, so those clients not on the most current build will not receive quality updates (after a 60 day grace period) until the most current feature update has been installed. For more details about Windows 10 servicing tools, see Servicing tools.
Current Branch for Business
Organizations typically prefer to have a testing cycle before broadly deploying new features to business users. For Windows 10, most pilot testing will be done using the CB servicing branch. In contrast, the CBB servicing branch is typically used for broad deployment. Windows 10 clients in the CBB servicing branch receive the same build of Windows 10 as those in the CB servicing branch, just at a later time. CB releases are transitioned to CBB after about 4 months, indicating that Microsoft, independent software vendors (ISVs), partners, and customers believe that the release is ready for broad deployment. Therefore, CB and CBB have an inherent “staging” effect. Both of these branches have a purpose in the overall deployment process for an enterprise, providing another layer of testing capabilities in addition to the traditional phased deployment methods to specific groups of machines. Microsoft will support two CBB builds at a time, plus a 60 day grace period. Each feature update release will be supported and updated for a minimum of 18 months.
Organizations can electively delay CB and CBB updates into as many phases as they wish by using one of the servicing tools mentioned in the section Servicing tools.
Basically, CBB is a configuration state, meaning that if a computer has the Defer Updates and Upgrades flag enabled—either through Group Policy, a mobile device management product like Microsoft Intune, or manually on the client—it’s considered to be in the CBB servicing branch. The benefit of tying this servicing model and CB to a configuration state rather than a SKU is that they are easily interchangeable. If an organization accidentally selects CBB on a machine that doesn’t need delayed updates, it’s simple to change it back.
Long-term Servicing Branch
Specialized systems—such as PCs that control medical equipment, point-of-sale systems, and ATMs—often require a longer servicing option because of their purpose. These devices typically perform a single important task and don’t need feature updates as frequently as other devices in the organization. It’s more important that these devices be kept as stable and secure as possible than up to date with user interface changes. The LTSB servicing model prevents Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB devices from receiving the usual feature updates and provides only quality updates to ensure that device security stays up to date. With this in mind, quality updates are still immediately available to Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB clients, but customers can choose to defer them by using one of the servicing tools mentioned in the section Servicing tools.
LTSB is not intended for deployment on most or all the PCs in an organization; it should be used only for special-purpose devices. As a general guideline, a PC with Microsoft Office installed is a general-purpose device, typically used by an information worker, and therefore it is better suited for the CB or CBB servicing branch.
Microsoft never publishes feature updates through Windows Update on devices that run Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB. Instead, it typically offers new LTSB releases every 2–3 years, and organizations can choose to install them as in-place upgrades or even skip releases over a 10-year life cycle.
Windows 10 LTSB will support the currently released silicon at the time of release of the LTSB. As future silicon generations are released, support will be created through future Windows 10 LTSB releases that customers can deploy for those systems. For more information, see Supporting the latest processor and chipsets on Windows in Lifecycle support policy FAQ - Windows Products.
LTSB is available only in the Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB edition. This build of Windows doesn’t contain many in-box applications, such as Microsoft Edge, Windows Store client, Cortana (limited search capabilities remain available), Microsoft Mail, Calendar, OneNote, Weather, News, Sports, Money, Photos, Camera, Music, and Clock. Therefore, it’s important to remember that Microsoft has positioned the LTSB model primarily for specialized devices.
If an organization has devices currently running Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB that it would like to change to the CB or CBB servicing branch, it can make the change without losing user data. Because LTSB is its own SKU, however, an upgrade is required from Windows 10 Enterprise LTSB to Windows 10 Enterprise, which supports CB and CBB.
For many IT pros, gaining visibility into feature updates early—before they’re available to the CB servicing branch—can be both intriguing and valuable for future end user communications as well as provide additional prestaging for CB machines. With Windows 10, feature flighting enables Windows Insiders to consume and deploy preproduction code to their test machines, gaining early visibility into the next build. Testing the early builds of Windows 10 helps both Microsoft and its customers because they have the opportunity to discover possible issues before the update is ever publicly available and can report it to Microsoft. Also, as flighted builds get closer to their release to CB, organizations can test their deployment on test devices for compatibility validation.
Microsoft recommends that all organizations have at least a few PCs enrolled in the Windows Insider Program and provide feedback on any issues they encounter. For information about how to sign up for the Windows Insider Program and enroll test devices, go to https://insider.windows.com.
The Windows Insider Program isn’t intended to replace CB deployments in an organization. Rather, it provides IT pros and other interested parties with prerelease Windows builds that they can test and ultimately provide feedback on to Microsoft.
There are many tools with which IT pros can service Windows as a service. Each option has its pros and cons, ranging from capabilities and control to simplicity and low administrative requirements. The following are examples of the servicing tools available to manage Windows as a service updates:
- Windows Update (stand-alone) provides limited control over feature updates, with IT pros manually configuring the device to be in the CBB servicing branch. Organizations can control which devices defer updates and stay in the CBB servicing branch or remain in CB by selecting the Defer upgrades check box in Start\Settings\Update & Security\Advanced Options on a Windows 10 client.
- Windows Update for Business is the second option for servicing Windows as a service. This servicing tool includes a little more control over update deferment and provides centralized management using Group Policy. In Windows 10 version 1511, Windows Update for Business can be used to defer feature updates for up to 8 months and quality updates for up to 4 weeks. Also, these deferment options were available only to clients in the CBB servicing branch. In Windows 10 version 1607 and later, Windows Update for Business can be used to defer feature updates for up to 180 days and quality updates for up to 30 days. These deployment options are available to clients in either the CB or CBB servicing branch. In addition to being able to use Group Policy to manage Windows Update for Business, either option can be configured without requiring any on-premises infrastructure by using Intune. In addition to Intune, organizations can use Group Policy to manage Windows Update for Business.
- Windows Server Update Services (WSUS) provides extensive control over Windows 10 updates and is natively available in the Windows Server operating system. In addition to the ability to defer updates, organizations can add an approval layer for updates and choose to deploy them to specific computers or groups of computers whenever ready.
- System Center Configuration Manager provides the greatest control over servicing Windows as a service. IT pros can defer updates, approve them, and have multiple options for targeting deployments and managing bandwidth usage and deployment times.
With all these options, which an organization chooses depends on the resources, staff, and expertise its IT organization already has. For example, if IT already uses System Center Configuration Manager to manage Windows updates, it can continue to use it. Similarly, if IT is using WSUS, it can continue to use that. For a consolidated look at the benefits of each tool, see Table 1.
|Servicing tool||Can updates be deferred?||Ability to approve updates||Peer-to-peer option||Additional features|
|Windows Update||Yes (manual)||No||Delivery Optimization||None|
|Windows Update for Business||Yes||No||Delivery Optimization||Other Group Policy objects|
|WSUS||Yes||Yes||BranchCache or Delivery Optimization||Upstream/downstream server scalability|
|Configuration Manager||Yes||Yes||BranchCache, Client Peer Cache||Distribution points, multiple deployment options|
Steps to manage updates for Windows 10
- Update Windows 10 in the enterprise
- Quick guide to Windows as a service
- Manage updates for Windows 10 Mobile Enterprise and Windows 10 IoT Mobile
- Configure Delivery Optimization for Windows 10 updates
- Configure BranchCache for Windows 10 updates
- Configure Windows Update for Business
- Integrate Windows Update for Business with management solutions
- Walkthrough: use Group Policy to configure Windows Update for Business
- Walkthrough: use Intune to configure Windows Update for Business
- Manage device restarts after updates