Introduction to Microsoft Exchange Server 2003 GroupWise Connector


上一次修改主题: 2005-09-19

By Shawn Zaravar

Novell GroupWise is a messaging platform produced by Novell. Basically, each Novell GroupWise user exists in a Novell GroupWise Post Office. One or more post offices are grouped into a Novell GroupWise Domain. Novell GroupWise domains are similar in concept to Administrative Groups in Microsoft® Exchange Server. Finally, one or more Novell GroupWise Domains make up a Novell GroupWise System, which is similar to an Exchange Server Organization name.

The primary Novell GroupWise post offices are installed and run on Novell NetWare servers.

To send an e-mail to a user within Novell GroupWise, the e-mail address must conform to the Novell GroupWise naming convention of domain-name.postoffice-name.user-alias. Note that Novell GroupWise addressing format requires periods (.) to separate domain-name, postoffice-name, and user-alias.

The Novell GroupWise connector is a component of Microsoft Exchange Server 2003, Exchange 2000 Server, and Exchange Server version 5.5. It enables Exchange Server administrators to implement messaging coexistence between Exchange and Novell GroupWise organizations. The connector provides mail flow connectivity, as well as an ability to synchronize the two directories.

With directory synchronization in place, each global address list (GAL) is updated with users from the other organization. Exchange Server and Novell GroupWise users can send e-mail to each other by selecting the recipient from their address books.

Novell GroupWise versions 4.1x, 5.0, 5.1, 5.2x, and 5.5x have been tested with the Exchange Server 2003 Novell GroupWise connector. With Exchange Server 2003 Service Pack 1, all versions of Novell GroupWise 6.5 and earlier are supported.

For more information, see Microsoft Knowledge Base article 329041, "Exchange support for Novell GroupWise 6."

To interact with Novell GroupWise, Exchange Server connects to Novell GroupWise using a Novell technology called API Gateway.

The Novell GroupWise API Gateway 4.1 is an optional component that can be added by the Novell GroupWise administrator.

This Novell GroupWise technology uses keyword-based text files to provide a communication channel with non-Novell GroupWise systems. It uses pre-defined plain text keywords to format a message for delivery to and from the external system.

The Exchange Connector for Novell GroupWise uses the keyword-based text files for the purpose of message flow and directory synchronization with Novell GroupWise (through the Novell GroupWise API Gateway).

Novell GroupWise API Gateway is a NetWare Loadable Module (NLM) installed in the Novell GroupWise system.

The following list is the configuration requirements needed on the Exchange Server side:

  • Configure a working Novell GroupWise environment with API Gateway version 4.1 or later
  • Configure a working Exchange Server 2003 connector server
  • Make sure Exchange Server can resolve the name and access the Novell Netware server that is running API Gateway
  • Enable Exchange Server to Novell Netware server connectivity by using Gateway Services for NetWare (GSNW) or Novell NetWare Client for Windows. NDS authentication is needed to access NetWare Volumes (shares).
    GSNW does not ship in Windows Server 2003.
  • Activate GWise address type on the Exchange Server 2003 recipient policy.

Additional Notes

Certain ports may need to be opened if there are firewalls between Exchange Server and Novell GroupWise. The following ports may need to be open between these two servers (only):

  • UDP and TCP ports 524
  • UDP and TCP ports 427
  • TCP 389

For more information, see the following Novell Technical Information Documents, available on the Novell Web site:

The third-party Web site information is provided to help you find the technical information you need. The URLs are subject to change without notice.

If you are using a TCP/IP-based Novell NetWare environment, you should use Novell NetWare Client for Windows. Novell Netware Client 4.8x is the preferred version. It is recommended that Novell GroupWise API Gateway 4.1 have Patch 2 installed on it.

Install Exchange Server 2003 and the Novell GroupWise connector on a bridgehead (connector) server. You need to have Exchange Administrator permissions in the Administrative Group where the connector's target Routing Group will be, as well as be a member of the Local Administrator group on the connector server.

To prepare the Novell GroupWise environment
  1. Install the Novell GroupWise API Gateway on a Novell NetWare server.

    1. Use the NLM version of the API Gateway for Connector for Novell GroupWise.
    2. Copy the corresponding gateway files to a directory on your NetWare server. It is a good idea to create a gateway directory in the \Wpgate subdirectory of your Novell GroupWise domain (for example, \GWAPI).
    3. On System Console, run NWConfig to install the API Gateway in the NetWare Configuration program.
    It is recommended that you install Patch 2 for the Novell GroupWise 4.1 API Gateway for NLM on the Novell NetWare server that is running the API Gateway. The GW41API2.exe patch is available on the Novell Web site.
  2. Configure the API Gateway in the Novell GroupWise domain.

    1. Start the Novell NetWare Administrator program.
    2. Create a gateway object in the Novell GroupWise domain object.
    3. Enable directory synchronization for this object.
    4. Select Optional Gateway Settings.
    5. Under Directory Sync/Exchange select Exchange (this is a setting that allows exchanging directory information and the term does not refer to Microsoft Exchange Server).
  3. Create an external foreign domain document for the Exchange Server organization in the Novell GroupWise domain, and link it to the API Gateway

    1. Create an external foreign domain for your Exchange Server 2003 organization; generally, this domain is named Exchange.
    2. Configure the link configuration of the Novell GroupWise domain to connect the external foreign domain (Exchange Server) to your Novell GroupWise domain through the Novell GroupWise API Gateway. Otherwise, Novell GroupWise cannot route messages to Exchange Server users.
  4. Configure permissions for the Novell GroupWise API Gateway directory. It is recommended that you restrict access to the Novell GroupWise API Gateway directory. Because you can perform management functions by using the Novell GroupWise API Gateway, you want to create a gateway account and allow only this account access to the folder share.

The following Novell GroupWise API Gateway directories are most important when communicating with Exchange Server:

  • API_IN   Receives incoming message header files from non-Novell GroupWise systems
  • API_OUT   Holds outgoing message header files to non-Novell GroupWise systems
  • ATT_IN   Receives incoming message bodies and attachments from non-Novell GroupWise systems
  • ATT_OUT   Holds outgoing message bodies and attachments to non-Novell GroupWise systems

Exchange Connector for Novell GroupWise needs full access permission to the API folders. To grant the connector this access and deny access to non-administrators, a dedicated Novell NetWare account is required. You must create this account using Novell NetWare Administrator, and then use the Exchange System Manager Microsoft Management Console (MMC) snap-in to configure the connector (on the General tab) to use this account for Novell GroupWise API Gateway access.

The connector's NetWare account must be a member of a special group called NTGATEWAY, which you need to create using Novell NetWare Administrator. The connector's NetWare account requires permissions to create, read, write, and delete files in the Novell GroupWise API Gateway directories. For additional details see the Microsoft Knowledge Base article 264049, “XFOR: How to Set Up and Configure the Novell GroupWise Connector on Exchange 2000 Server Using GSNW” and Interoperating with and Migrating from Novell GroupWise Messaging Infrastructures to Exchange Server 2003 in the Exchange Server Interoperability and Migration Guide.

For message flow, you need to have three services started on the Exchange server:

  • Connectivity controller
  • Connector for Novell GroupWise
  • Router for Novell GroupWise (which is responsible for transferring the text files to and from Novell GroupWise API Gateway share).

The following describes the message flow from Exchange Server to Novell GroupWise:

  1. Exchange Server transport examines the message target address. If the address type is GWISE, it sends the message to the Message Transfer Agent (MTA) by placing it in the SMTP mailbox folder called MTS-IN.
  2. MTA picks up the message and delivers it to the GroupWise connector's mailbox folder called MTS-OUT.
  3. LXMEXOUT picks up the message from MTA-OUT and delivers it to READYOUT folder.
  4. MEX2GW process converts the message to GroupWise format and writes the results in the Connector Store on \\Program Files\Exchsrvr\Conndata\GWRouter.
  5. Exchange Router for Novell GroupWise service (GWRouter) picks it up from there and delivers it to the API Gateway.
  6. GWMTA in turn delivers the message within the Novell GroupWise organization.

The following events describe the message flow from Novell GroupWise to Exchange Server:

  1. Exchange Server Router for Novell GroupWise (GWRouter) service picks up the message from the Novell GroupWise API Gateway share and places it in the Connector Store.
  2. GW2MEX process converts the header and body files to Exchange Server format and delivers the message to READYIN folder in the connector mailbox in the Information Store.
  3. LSMEXIN process picks up the message from READYIN, verifies the recipient, and delivers the message to the MTS-IN folder.
  4. Store processes the message from the MTS-IN folder of the connector and places it in the MTS-OUT folder of the SMTP service mailbox.

Each object (contact or user) created by the Directory Synchronization in the Active Directory® directory service will have its ImportedFrom attribute populated with the Novell GroupWise connector's ObjectGUID.

In the Novell GroupWise directory, for the users created during directory synchronization, the connector will add Microsoft Exchange Connector for Novell to their custom attribute #5. The connector uses this attribute to identify the Novell GroupWise users that were created by the connector so it will not create them in the Active Directory schema when synchronizing to Novell GroupWise.

This is how the connector can identify the objects in each directory that it created.

Each object created (typically Contacts) in the Active Directory schema will have their Novell GroupWise proxy address, as well as an additional GWISE proxy address with UID, which would be unique.

  • Immediate Full Reload from Exchange Server to Novell GroupWise    Sends all users that are included for Directory Synchronization (OU containers selected) to Novell GroupWise, whether they have been synchronized previously or not.
  • Immediate update from Exchange Server to Novell GroupWise    Sends only the objects that were modified since last synchronization.
  • Immediate Full Reload from Novell GroupWise to Exchange Server    Sends all Novell GroupWise users to Active Directory even if they were synchronized previously.
There is no Immediate Update from Novell GroupWise because this request does not exist in Novell GroupWise and there is no way for the connector to determine which objects were updated or changed.

The following events describe what happens in Exchange to GroupWise directory synchronization:

  1. LSDXA.EXE process calls DXAMEX.DLL, which in turn polls Active Directory for a list of users that will be included in directory synchronization. These are written into the temp file exchsrvr\conndata\temp\dxagwise.txt (also known as an MIF file).
  2. While this file is being written, a second LSDXA.EXE process is spawned.
  3. The second copy of LSDXA will call DXAGWISE.DLL, which creates an API request file that will request a directory list from Novell GroupWise and places this file in the \\exchsrvr\conndata\gwrouter\togwise directory.
  4. Exchange Server GWROUTER.EXE process picks up this API message and moves it to the Novell GroupWise API-IN folder.
  5. At this stage, the Novell GroupWise API Gateway delivers the message to Novell GroupWise, which generates a full directory list and hands this list back to Novell GroupWise API Gateway, which delivers it to the API_OUT folder.
  6. GWROUTER.EXE process picks up this API message from API-OUT and delivers it to the \\exchsrvr\conndata\gwrouter\dirsync directory.
  7. The first instance of LSDXA.exe picks this message up and looks for all those users that have their Custom Attribute #5 populated with Microsoft Exchange Connector for Novell. It then compares this list with the dxagwise.txt MIF file (which may still be growing). It writes in memory what needs to be updated in Novell GroupWise. It then writes this update from memory to a new API file in the \\exchsrvr\conndata\gwrouter\togwise directory.
  8. GWROUTER picks up this file and moves it to the API_IN folder. Novell GroupWise API Gateway hands these updates to Novell GroupWise which in turn updates its own directory.

The same steps are performed as for Updates, except for Step 7. In this step, LSDXA.exe writes all the Exchange Server users (from Active Directory) to the API file, basically writing all the users in Novell GroupWise directory (and overwriting those that were created previously).

The following events describe what happens in GroupWise to Exchange directory synchronization:

  1. LSDXA.EXE calls SXAGWISE.DLL, which generates an Novell GroupWise API Gateway request file to "Get Directory" list from Novell GroupWise and places it in the \\exchsrvr\conndata\gwrouter\togwise directory.
  2. GWROUTER.EXE process picks up the Novell GroupWise API Gateway request and moves to the API_IN folder on Novell server. Novell GroupWise generates a full directory list and Novell GroupWise API Gateway places it in the API_OUT folder.
  3. GWROUTER.EXE process picks up this Novell GroupWise API Gateway message from the Novell server and places it in the \\exchsrvr\conndata\gwrouter\dirsync directory.
  4. The LSDXA.EXE process creates a blank \\exchsrvr\conndata\temp\dxamex.txt MIF file.
  5. After the Novell GroupWise API Gateway file is picked up, LSDXA.EXE discards any entry that contains the Novell GroupWise Custom Attribute #5 Microsoft Exchange Connector for Novell. It writes the remaining entries into the dxamex.txt file.
  6. LSDXA.EXE spawns another copy of itself, which calls DXAMEX.DLL to update Active Directory with the entries in the dxamex.txt file.

This option is not available because Novell GroupWise does not provide a way to locate objects that were modified since the last directory synchronization occurred.

The following table contains many GroupWise terms and what their explanation is (or equivalent term on Exchange Server).


GroupWise term Explanation


Mailbox enabled user.

External Entity

Contact or custom-recipient.


Dsamain.exe (the directory service). Typically, only one instance of the ADA runs for an entire domain and all the post offices within that domain.


Same as the Exchange Server MTA. The difference is that there is generally only one instance of the GroupWise MTA servicing multiple post offices in a domain, whereas in Exchange Server, each server (post office) runs an instance of the Exchange Server MTA.


Store.exe (the information store service, not the store database).

Post Office

Similar to a single Exchange Server computer.


Similar to an Exchange Server site, in that it is a logical grouping of post offices for administrative and routing purposes.


Similar to an Exchange Server organization, in that it is a logical grouping of domains (sites) into a contiguous name space for replication and messaging purposes.

Message Store

Similar in concept to the Exchange Server information store databases (Priv.edb and Pub.edb), but radically different in implementation.

Shared Folders

Public folders.

Keyword-based text file technology

These are ASCII text files that contain keywords that direct the API Gateway to perform certain tasks. Exchange Connector for GroupWise uses this approach to send messages and directory updates to Novell GroupWise. The connector is also capable of interpreting messages and directory updates coming from Novell GroupWise.

NetWare Loadable Module (NLM)

A module or executable that can be loaded automatically when a Novell Netware system is started; this is similar to a service in Windows.